Black Hill Chronology

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This page provides a chronology of events associated with Black Hill. The dates cited are those given in the source material. Where there is more than one source, the dates may sometimes be contradictory.



August At that time Lindsay and Greenwood were at the Black Hill by themselves...[1]

August The sailor says, "that Greenwood and myself were working together by ourselves (when he came) at the Black Hill." I deny this: I never worked with Greenwood in my life.[2]

August 15 ...a formal proclamation was issued by Mr. Latrobe, declaring that all gold, whether found on private or Crown lands, belonged to Her Majesty, and any one disturbing the soil in search for such gold, without having been so authorised by the Government, would be prosecuted, criminally and civilly. Three days later regulations for the issue of licenses to dig were published...[3]

After August Then Dunlop and mates fell to work on the Black Hill.[4]

September 24 There is another "Diggins" close by, say two miles, "the Black Hill," but hitherto the miners have not been successful to any great amount.[5]

October 15 There are we should say about a thousand cradles at work within a mile of the Golden Point at Ballarat. There are about fifty near the Black Hill about a mile and a half distant, and at the Brownhill Diggings there are about three or four hundred more...[6]

October 17 The workings at the Black Hill are getting more into favor, and the finding there of a lump no less than 7 1/2 lbs. weight, will turn the attention still more strongly towards them. The Commissioner paid the place a visit, and intimated to the diggers, who have hitherto been allowed to work without interference that he would, in a few days require the payment of license money.[7]

October 25 The Golden Point is nearly worked out, and the new diggings as well as the Black Hill are laborious and uncertain.[8]

October 31 The Black Hill is a particularly interesting geological feature, a spiral ridge of rocks appears on the S.W. face, exposing a vein of quartz of great thickness, penetrating clay slate; nearer the summit is found steatite, greenstone, and mica slate, these again are found at the point in the form of clays and breccias. The quartz, though existing in masses of, perhaps a ton weight, is invariably rounded and water-worn, and in its position generally, affording undeniable evidence of an aqueous deposit...[9]

November 1 The workings at the Black Hill yield from one to four and five ounces "per diem," but great anticipations are entertained that the removal of the masses of quartz, which can only be done by blasting, will lay bare riches that will outvie the yield of Golden Point.[10]

November 8 The Golden Point had been very much thinned of miners, many of them having sloped to Mount Alexander, and the Black Hill was becoming the favourite gold field.[11]

November 29 I have been here now about five weeks, and when first I came, the whole of the banks of the creek were occupied to crowding with busy parties at the cradles and tin dishes; then came a cry of the wonders of the new diggings, about four miles from hence, on the road to Melbourne, and people left the Golden Point for the new toy, and among the few that did well there, many found it was all a mere bubble; shortly after that, the Black Hill caused a small movement, but this, too, proved but little worth while for any one to give his attention to it. Gold was found on the surface soil in pretty little round nuggets, but it was soon found scarcely worth while to dig for as a business.[12]

29 November MELBOURNE GOLD MEMS.—One gentleman received from Ballarat, on Tuesday, twenty ounces as his share as sleeping partner. The party had been out a month, and had obtained it from the Black Hill. [There follows numerous reports from Ballarat and elsewhere.] The conclusion I have arrived at is, that the Black Hill has not only furnished the great proportion of gold found at the Point, and in the surrounding surface, but also contains at this moment vast wealth not to be reached by the present desultory mode of working, but only by regular mining operations.[13]

December 3 For the first three or four weeks after arriving at Ballarat, our supply of nuggets was extremely small, and the necessity of damper and other animal sustenance rendered it imperative, as the Governor says in his speech, that measures should be taken on that head; and consequently our "bag of gold," 2 oz. in weight, derived after considerable diving into the bowels of the Black Hill was metamorphosed into cash. The good accounts received from Mount Alexander, had made us resolve on a start, just as I received your letter from Mr H. Frencham, who also made off to the Mount. Here we found better prospects before us, as every one who perseveres may do well, which is not the case at Ballarat.[14]


March Dr. Otway was not there then. There were only two tents. There was no one on the hill - Black Hill; about two tents between that and Rotten Gully. [15]

April 7 The Black Hill is left in a state that will repay well the adventurer who will expend a little labour when the rain comes. The most likely spots in this vicinity are left untried, and many of the holes opened have never been bottomed. Traces of a slaty formation are plainly manifest here, and there is good foundation for the belief that rich diggings will be discovered in this locality.[16]

May 20 Those acquainted with the locality, will see at once that the neighbourhood of the Black Hill is indicated - the features of which have been pointed out by our correspondent as greatly resembling the geological structure of many parts of the Mount [possibly Mount Alexander]. The jutting trap rock, and strata of slate occasionally intermingled with quartz, would arrest the attention of the most casual observer, whilst the ranges lying further back, and extending for many miles, mark this neighbourbood as a scene where, ere long, the hitherto solitude will resound with the noise of pick and cradle. [17]

May 28 Private advices fully confirm the report of the opening of rich workings near the Black Hill.[18]

August In evidence given to court in 1860,[Notes 1] James Lancelot Stormont says: "I constructed a quartz-crushing machine within 20 yards of where Dr. Otway constructed one in the end of 1853, at Black Hill.[Notes 2] My machine was made at the end of 1852... Dozens of persons saw it, and made fun of it. I worked it for about five or six weeks there. I crushed about 10 or 12 tons on the Black Hill. I then removed it to the bottom of Rotten Gully, a mile or a mile and a quarter off. It could have been seen by all who came. I explained it, and got laughed at for my pains by Cornishmen... I gave an order to a storekeeper, who kept the Melbourne Store, for the stamp heads. The stamps were made of wood, shod with iron.[15]


January James Lancelot Stormont dismantles his quartz-crushing machine "as the timber was wanted" and returns to alluvial mining. "It took all I was making by the machine for food then."[15]

January 15 ...the Black Hill, Ballaarat, is... looking up.[19]

February 23 A very beautiful specimen from the Black Hill, Ballarat, was sold yesterday. It weighed 3lbs...[20]

February 28 The gravel pits on the Black Hill and the Eureka flats are all wrought again successfully...[21]

April William Frederick Osborne sets up "on the Black Hill... a windmill and stampers on the old Cornish principle" to crush quartz.[22] Osborne later became business partners with William Beauclerc Otway, and the 1853 windmill is often attributed to Otway. For example, Robert Brough Smyth states "In April 1853 a Mr. Otway erected a windmill on the top of the hill to supply motive-power for a crushing apparatus, consisting of four wooden beetles, shod with iron 1½ inch thick; but it did not answer for the purpose of crushing quartz."[23]

Middle of 1853 William Crossley sets up a Chilean mill at "Rotten Gully and Black Hill". He states that "Dr. Otway had one or two stamping machines there in 1853, driven by a windmill." However, Otway did not arrive at Ballarat until 16 January 1854, so Crossley may be referring to William Frederick Osborne. "The mill was on the top of Black Hill. I saw it pretending to work. It did not crush anything... I recollect a machine at the foot of Black Hill in 1853 [probably 1854]. There was Otway's and another. I don't remember more than those two."[22]

December 1 "An Act for the better management of the Goldfields of Victoria"... fixed £1, £2, £4 and £8 as the cost of a licence, for one, three, six and twelve months respectively. Unfortunately, the admitted evils of the mode of collection were left unremedied...[3]


January 3 A new rush has taken place close to the Black Hill, and I believe a good quantity of gold is being found, but diggers are so chary that they will not say what they are really getting.[24]

January 31 Surfacing.—Some good surfacing and shallow sinking is at present going on along the flat, beneath the range, towards the Eureka, principally about the vicinity of the rise known as the Black Hill.[25]

March 31 Many parties are still at work in the Buninyong Gully including' New Chum and Scotchman's Gully. The washing-stuff averages a quarter of an ounce to the tub of four buckets. The same may be said of that comparatively new line - the Black Hill. Here the sinking at present runs some thirty feet. It runs nearly parallel to Eureka, and is gradually deepening. It pays some three holes in width.[26]

April 25 Some minor patches of paying ground are now being turned over to the north of the Black Hill; this hill may well be called a golden centre, as to one standing on it summit, "leads," are observable diverging in all directions.[27]

May 15 Two new rushes took place last week, leading from the Black hill toward the Gravel Pit line.[28]

May 15 Several minor rushes have taken place during the week; one to the head of the Gravel Pits, on the Black Hill side, which, however, though gold was found, did not hold out such to lead the diggers to persevere, and is now, consequently, abandoned. The same may be said of the Black Hill lead, which for a time was crowded, but is now nearly deserted.[29]

May 26 NUGGETY GULLY. — This Gully, famed for nuggets, as its name implies, is situated about a mile to the rear of the Black Hill, and though for some time almost entirely abandoned, was a few days ago the scene of a ‘rush' in consequence of a man, called 'Black Jack,’ having come upon it heavy, at the depth of about 14 feet. A long line of claims was marked out, and many have done exceedingly well, varying from 1 to 3 ounces to the tub, in addition .to what is 'nuggetted,' in other words, taken out of the stuff before it has been washed. [30]

May William Frederick Osborne erected "a steam-engine, at the foot of the hill, and fitted it with the same stampers [as he had used for the windmill on top of the hill]. There was no other machine then in Ballarat, nor afterwards, for a year or so... I applied for a grant of land to erect machinery upon, but was refused. Sir Charles Hotham came to see our machinery... It must have been 18 months or two years after ours that any other machine was erected.[22]

July 15 It is certainly rather singular how many diggers are still "fossiking" among our old gullies ; around the Black Hill, and all up the ranges where Eureka had its rise, there is still a considerable popula tion, independent of the numerous. Chinamen, who appear to make any place pay them.[31]

August 30 Lady Hotham accompanied by Lieutenant Colonel Valiant and several others, proceeded to pay a visit to the Black Hill, where there has been for some time a crushing machine quietly at work on a quartz run there; the power used is the windmill, and I may here say, that the report runs, that the owners of the machine are doing very well.[32][Notes 3]

September 6 On Monday, Lady Hotham, accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel Valiant and several others, proceeded to pay a visit to the Black Hill, where there has been for some time a crushing machine quietly at work on a quartz run there. The power used is the wind. [33][Notes 4]

September 22 Article calling for gold mining regulation to adapt to new approaches (particularly the formation of mining companies) being developed to mine gold from quartz. In Ballarat, on the Black Hill, a small crushing mill is erected, (windmill power); the [illegible] the stamp mill, probably the most ineffective of any of the crushing apparatuses; however, the owners are satisfied with the results, proving our veins to be richly auriferous, and thus bestirring themselves to get more powerful approved machinery. Some other companies are initiated, and have given orders for necessary crushing mills, so that it is probable that this hitherto much neglected source of wealth will soon largely augment this staple export.[34]

September 27 A new rush has taken place to... the Black Hill... [among other places][35]

September 30 The quartz crushing machine on the Black Hill has been idle for some time past, owing to some dilapidation in its construction, and we are unable to state the time when it will resume operations. We believe there are some parties preparing to excavate the Black Hill - an excellent project in our opinion, - but from motives of consideration we refrain from giving the full particulars until some future time.[36]

After the Eureka Stockade, H. R. Nicholls and his brother Charles drafted a petition calling for amnesty for the arrested stockaders while sitting on Black Hill.[37]


January 22 - Dr Otway publicly launches his new mill.

A lithograph of what is likely to be Dr Otway's mill. [38]

March 7 A lump of pure gold was yesterday dug up from a claim on the Black Hill Lead near Bakery Hill, weighing nearly SIXTY POUNDS TROY. The exact weight was not ascertained when our informant left. It was weighed roughly with steelyards, as there were no proper scales and weights at hand.[39]

March 20 Hayes used to keep a store on the Black Hill. It was about a quarter of a mile from the stockade.[40]

April 20 An Act for granting duties of Customs upon Gold exported from Victoria assented to. The act specifies an export duty on gold of two shillings and sixpence per ounce.[41]

June 7 There has been a rush within the last day or so, to the head of the Gravel Pits, in the direction of the Black Hill...[42]

June 12 An Act for the Better Regulation of Mining Companies, often referred to as "Haines' Act", was passed "to encourage investment in the mining industry". It "introduced a form of incorporation and limited liability for mining corporations and partnerships... [and] enabled a company to be formed and registered with a local court although it was in many respects a partnership governed by partnership law."[43]

June 12 An Act to amend the Laws relating to the Gold Fields assented to. This Act enabled the government to provide Miner's Rights, licenses and leases. [44]

June 14 The rush to the new gully behind the Black Hill still continues, and several parties are doing well; the latest bottomed shaft is above 100 feet, and as the lead advances it is deepening. Many are sanguine that another of our famous lead has been thus hit on, and that Dead Bullock Gully, for so the place is named, will prove a worthy successor of some of our lines now nearly worked out. [45]

July 14 The members of the first Local Court are elected at a meeting held on Bakery Hill.[46]

October 18 On and in the neighborhood of the Black Hill there are several parties, who have been for some time past prospecting in quartz reefs, confidently expecting to find rich veins in that locality. [47]

December 10 A rush took place yesterday in the direction of the Black Hill, on the supposed continuation of the old Black Hill lead lost above a year since. What success may attend this rush is doubtful, as where this line was lost it was paying badly.[48]

December 16 In a report on flooding due to a massive rain and hail storm, it states that "several men are reported to have been drowned last night [including] one at the Black Hill."[49]


January 30 Quartz Crushing. — On Wednesday last, a new amalgamator, the invention of Mr Goldsack, was tried at the works purchased by the Quartz Crushing Company, at the foot of the Black Hill. The visitors to witness the experiment tried, were very numerous, and all left satisfied that a very great improvement if not the great desideratum itself, had been hit upon. Many of the inspecting parties were miners on the quartz reef at the back of the township, and after a very careful analysis of the refuse, not a single globule of mercury could be discovered. We regret to say that some shares in this promising company still remain unsold, and as they are at the moderate figure of £10, we earnestly call upon those who are anxious to develop this, the future source of Australian wealth and prosperity, to promote what promises to be a really paying speculation. The public are cordially invited to inspect the machinery and judge for themselves.[50]

Early in the year Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company employee Henry Thompson's search for prospective quartz reefs takes him to Ballarat. Company Director Rivett Henry Bland assembles a small quartz-crushing plant "from equipment already on hand. This was used to test promising quartz reefs on a small claim taken out at Black Hill... "[51]

February 25 From all that we can gather, the miners on the Black Hill have had no cause to regret their labours. In some instances so much as sixteen ounces have been taken from the bottom of a single shaft.[52]

March 5 Delirium Tremens. — An individual, residing near the Black Hill, and commonly known as "Billy the Bull", made a desperate attempt on Thursday last to destroy himself, by cutting his throat. Dr. Stewart was immediately sent for to dress his wounds, which we learn are not of a fatal nature.[53]

Early March George Milner Stephen arrives in Melbourne to set up and manage an ore treatment works for the Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company. Rivett Henry Bland is not impressed, and it appears from Woodland's account that Stephen's involvement with the Port Phillip Company was terminated.[51]

March 18 ...a new quartz crushing machine is now in working operation at the foot of the Black Hill, belonging to Mr Hoeg. It is highly spoken of; and another time I will give you a full description of it. The enterprising proprietor has erected it at an immense outlay of capital, and it is to be hoped that the results will fully realise his most sanguine expectations.[54]

April 30 At the Friday's sittings two separate applications were made for ten acres of worked ground, the one on the White Flat and the other on the Black Hill. The applicants wore requested to comply with the fifth rule of the Court previous to their request being entertained.[55]

Around May Joseph Robson is appointed to manage Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company's Black Hill mining operation.[51]

Late May The Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company begins mining on the Black Hill claim.[51]

Date uncertain A second treatment plant was erected shortly afterwards at Black Hill [by the Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company], crushing quartz mined from the company's claim as well as public crushing for diggers working in the nearby Mopoke Gully. Rees Davies, a Welsh mechanical engineer managed the plant, which had the added refinement of an amalgamating machine in its gold recovery section.[51]

July 16 MR. JEFFRIES, Red Hill, or owners of puddling machine at the foot of the reef Black Hill, will hear of an offer for the same, by applying at Stevenson's Store, Black Hill.[56]

August 3 INQUEST. On Sunday the 3rd, the Coroner held an inquest on the body of Maria O'Connell, an infant a few weeks old, who died suddenly on the 1st inst, at the Black Hill. Dr. Tapley who made a post-mortem examination of the body stated that the cause of death was bronchitis and the jury found a verdict accordingly.[57]

August 28 BLACK HILL.—In the Mopoke and other gullies round about the Black Hill there are a good many parties quietly working away. Dams, and puddling machines, and paddock of wash dirt here and there shows that this old ground is not yet exhausted. On the top of the Hill there is a little new surfacing going on and a few parties sinking for quartz. The Port Philip Gold Mining Company have some extensive workings here, under the management of Mr Robertson. Between the Mopoke and adjoining gullies they have four or five working on what we take to be a portion of the same reef as is being so extensively worked on Old Post Office Hill. This portion of their works was opened about two months since, and a heap of quartz is accumulating for crushing. The extent of ground here belonging to the company is only one man's claim, although four are engaged thereon. Under the Black Hill the company commenced to tunnel on two levels some four months ago, and considerable progress has been made: four men working by day and four by night. The lower level is about twenty feet above the level of the flat, and the next level about fifteen feet higher than the first. The main drive in the lower level is six feet high and three feet wide, 230 feet in length. Cross-drives here and there are entered, the largest of which is 80 feet in extent longitudinally. The main drive in the upper level is about 150 in length, and of singular dimensions to those in the lower level; cross drives are also set in here in several places. These shafts communicate with the surface and supply these winding, crypt-like subterranean pathways with fresh air. One of the shafts cuts the upper level continuous to the main tunnel, and down it all the quartz obtained on that level is thrown to the lower level, where tramways will be presently laid, on which horses will convey the quartz thence to the open air, and the crushing-machines about to be erected by the company on the creek side. These tunnels are all dry, and in the main nicely rounded at the top; the reef, however, which is slatey, caves here and there, and re quires timbering; the overseer, who cautiously conducted us through the labyrinthine ways, being congratulated by one of the miners when we were there upon having escaped an avalanche of some hundredweights of roof and wall which had fallen upon the spot he occupied but a few minutes previously. There has been no regular reef struck here yet; but veins or lodes of auriferous quartz are seen in all the tunnels, and varying from one inch to a foot in depth, and running mostly in a horizontal direction with dips to the north and east. These extensive works, manned by employees at a high rate of wages, and necessitating a large outlay of capital, are but prospecting operations in quest of the main reef; but they demonstrate how indispensable is the introduction of capital to the effectual development of our mineral wealth. The enterprising spirit of this company merits every legitimate encouragement, for in serving themselves they benefit others; their large expenditure yielding an income to a numerous body of miners, artisans, and others; and thus contributing to the general prosperity of the community. Last year at this time there were two quartz crushing machines in work here; but only one now remains, and that is about to be removed. Undaunted, however, by the failure of those two companies, the Port Philip Company have powerful engines on the way up from town, and they propose to set vigorously to work as soon as their plant is in readiness.[58]

September 25 BLACK HILL. - This neighborhood, like many others on Ballarat, has as many lives as a popular reputation gives to the cat. On the hilltop several people are at work; and two parties have constructed wooden troughs or slides down the side of the hill, by means of which to throw down stuff to two puddling machines by the creek side. South of the Mopoke, the Port Phillip Company are clearing away for a horizontal entrance to the hill side, in order to open up the quartz reef, upon which they had already sunk perpendicularly above. For this ground they are about to apply for a lease. The tunneling of the company into the hill itself progresses, but they have not yet hit the reef. The lower tunnel is put in to a length of 300 feet, and timbered along the whole of its extent. It is straight, with the exception of an elbow a little way from the entrance, which is now, however, being removed, in order to make the roadway good for the iron drive-waggons which are on the premises, and which will forthwith be employed for the purpose of conveying the hoarded quartz in the tunnels to the crushing house below. Part of the crushing plant is on the ground, and an engine house is being erected, under the direction of the manager, Mr Robertson, who informs us that in a week or two he expects to be actively engaged in crushing and amalgamating operations.[59]

September 30 FOR SALE, the Black Hill Bakery, having 2 ovens and everything in good working order. Apply on the premises.[60]

November 8 £3 Reward. STOLEN or Strayed, on the 23rd Octo ber, from Black Hill 1 red poley Cow, with bell on, branded (L) near ribs. 1 black and white poley Cow, with rope on, branded RB off rump, (C) off side. 1 red and white spotted Cow, branded S off rump. The above reward will be paid on the above being delivered to James Penrose, Black Hill.[61]

November 18 The surface rush between the Black Hill and Little Bendigo still continues; but we have not heard of more nugget findings of any consequence. Now and then a patch of fairish ground has been found, and on the whole the rush has been as remunerative as such affairs generally are.[62]

November 21 The nugget rush in the gully between the Black Hill and Rotten Gully is very quiet now; no new lumps have turned up, and only a few persevering hands remain, on the ground.[63]

December 4 PROSPECTING AND RUSHES. - There has been a rush to the bottom of the hill between the Mopoke Gully and the Black Hill. On the side nearest the Black Hill the depth varies from 14 to 22 feet, with water at bottom. Some of the claims have showed pretty well, but more have been abandoned as no good. On the Mopoke side the depth is greater - black clay being found at over 20 feet and the bottom reached at from 25 to 30 feet, with but little water in most claims bottomed. There have been no special finds here, and, indeed, the rush is a very tranquil one, not more than thirty or forty claims working on the whole ground.[64]

December 4 There are several parties at work seeking to recover one or two small patches of paying ground in the gullies to the north east of the Black Hill. There is every likelihood of their being successful, as the prospectors know the ground, having worked there before, and having been pretty well paid at the time, the inducements to persevere are the greater.[64]

December 4 PORT PHILLIP COMPANY. - Operations are progressing briskly at the works of this company, at Dead Horse Gully, and we are informed that the yield of gold continues satisfactory. At the Black hill the crushing apparatus has been standing still for the past few days, owing to some defect in the working of the rollers in the amalgamating pan. Other machinery is about to be erected, and the stamping battery of the apparatus already in gear will continue in use. The tunnellngs into the hill have been carried considerably further since our last visit; and on the lower level a temporary line of rails has been laid down for the conveyance outwards of the quartz obtained within. These drives run in every direction, and in some places the veins of quartz have been either worked out, or worked as far as they paid or were considered safe; and the chambers are now being filled filled up with sandstone and slate obtained in the usual course of working. A third level has been opened since we were here last. This tunnel is set off at a depth of fifty feet from the surface; a stage being erected in a shaft that cuts the other levels, and the drive opened from the stage. The company continue to work the reef on the Mopoke side, but none of the quartz raised there has yet been crushed. A consider able quantity, however, lies piled up ready for the engine-house; and as soon as the various machinery which the company in tend working, arrives and is erected, these hoards will be removed and submitted to the usual pulverising process.[64]


According to Baragwanath, some "companies barely returned the miners' wages on account of the small areas allowed, but new regulations enabled claims to be enlarged during the year."[65]

January 20 Black Hill Rush. — A rush has taken place to some shallow ground near the Ballaguy Hotel, at the front of the Black Hill. Some of the claims have turned out remarkably well, sufficiently so to induce some of the fortunate occupants to remain by them all night to prevent any of their less scrupulous neighbor from taking — what our Clunes correspondent would call — a few tubs of stuff for a subsistence. Ballarat Star.[66]

Late January The Port Phillip Company's Black Hill operation shuts down "due to poor gold grades in the quartz reefs and a shortage of processing water caused by a drought."[51]

February 3 ACCIDENTS. — I have to record several dreadful accidents. During the thunderstorm which occurred on Saturday afternoon, a man named Dugald Campbell, who resided near the Black Hill, was instantaneously killed by lightning. He was standing in the door of his tent, when he received the fatal stroke, and his wife, who was but a few feet distant, had a very narrow escape. Deceased was but 26 years of age, and but recently married. About the same time in the day a brother-in law of the unfortunate Campbell, named Birchley was so severely injured by the premature explosion of a blast in a shaft on the Gravel Pits, that his recovery is doubtful. A mate of Birchley's was severely injured by the same explosion. During the afternoon a boy, about seven years old, the son of Mr. Thomas Gilbert, was drowned near the Black Hill, and a drunken man narrowly escaped a similar fate near the Northampton Hotel. [67]

March 5 MONTEZUMA THEATRE.—On Wednesday a new local drama, from the pen of Mr St. Quentin was produced at this theatre, and repeated last evening. We hail with satisfaction any effort of local talent, which we think should be encouraged. Criticism, however, to be valuable, should be genuine, and while it would be wrong to say that Mr St. Quentin's drama of "El Dorado" has no merit, we cannot say that we think it is a production that will be regarded as altogether a successful effort in dramatic literature. The language, from the first to the last, whilst it is good and appropriate, to the positions which the various characters are made to assume, contains very little of the poetry of composition. Want of space will not allow us to give an elaborate description of the plot, but the play is full of melodramatic effects. The scenery is indeed the best part of the play, being very good; the views of the "Docks and Shipping," the "Black Hill, Ballarat," and the "Ovens Waterfall," were excellent specimens of scene-painting.[68]

March 9 If architectural effect is ever to be apparent amongst us, free stone will have to be more generally adopted in building. Large deposits of it exist in the immediate neighborhood that already in use having been obtained from the Black Hill Quarry. In durability, upon exposure, it holds a place midway between bricks and blue-stone, and upon further examination of the district, it may be possible to obtain it in quality equal to the best European sandstones. The ease with which freestone is worked, the lightness of its appearance, and its home-like and English effect will, we trust, cause its more general adoption, either alone or with brick, in all buildings of a public or private character where architectural beauty is desired.[69]

The same article discusses brickmaking in Ballarat, stating that in addition to White Flat, "clay beds are being worked at the back of the Cemetery, and on Black Hill and Bakery Hill Flats."[69]

Late March Both plants at Ballarat were dismantled... and most of the machinery transported to Clunes.[51]

April 10 The Port Phillip Company have broken up their establishment, and most of the plant and outbuildings are removed hence to the Clunes and Creswick.[70]

April 10 BLACK HILL. - This neighborhood still wears a very bustling look, and a considerable number of miners are engaged, principally in surfacing operations. A good many surfacing grants have been lately made in this locality, and from the appearance of things there the place seems to retain a good deal of its former celebrity. Five companies have laid down wooden shoots from the hill-top, down which the stuff for washing is thrown and conveyed to puddling machines erected below, near the banks of the creek. One party have taken possession of Milner Stephen's old crushing house, turning it into a stable, and using the well for pumping from their puddling machine close by. They had previously jumped the upper level of the Port Phillip tunnels, and the tramway laid down by that company. A double line of rails has been laid down, and cars ascend and descend as at White Horse and Frenchman's recently.[70]

April 22 The party with the steam machinery from the Black Hill Flat have nearly got the plant into readiness, and the hill will soon, therefore, have another regular haul over. [71]

April 29 Barker and party, old ground surface grant, Pinchgut Gully. Black Hill. Granted.[72]

May 7 In an article on surfacing: On the Black Hill also there are a good few grants taken up and now in full work. Excepting in one instance, the plan of rail ways descending and ascending trucks has not yet been adopted here, the hill side in most places being too steep to render the plan in question desirable. Instead of the now pretty general tramway, therefore, the surfacers of the Black Hill have laid down wooden shoots constructed of six inch planks and reaching from the jetty at the top to the flat below, wheeling the stuff either by barrow or tramway trucks to the adjacent puddling machines.[73]

May 7 On the Black Hill also there are a good few grants taken up and now in full work. Excepting in one instance, the plan of rail ways descending and ascending trucks has not yet been adopted here, the hill side in most places being too steep to render the plan in question desirable. Instead of the now pretty general tramway, therefore, the surfacers of the Black Hill have laid down wooden shoots constructed of six inch planks and reaching from the jetty at the top to the flat below, wheeling the stuff either by barrow or tramway trucks to the adjacent puddling machines.[74]

July 16 Worley and party, surface grant, Black Hill. Granted.[75]

Prior to August A letter appears in the Mining Journal in London criticising Port Phillip Company employee Evelyn Ward Powles, implying "that Evelyn Powles' inefficiency had cost the company over £4,500 in an unsuccessful mining venture at Ballarat.[51] Woodland's reference is Mining Journal, vol.27, 8 August 1857, p.559. The fact that the year is 1857 suggests the unsuccessful mining venture could be the one at Black Hill.

August 1 ...the little rotatory iron puddling cylinder lately in use by Tehaar and party at the Black Hill and Specimen Gully...[76]

August 20 GAELIC CONGREGATION.—A new chapel for the use of the Gaelic portion of the Free Church, is now being erected on one of the cross roads on Bakery Hill, between the Melbourne road and the Black Hill Flat. The building, which is nearly covered in, is thirty- six feet in length, twenty feet wide, with twelve feet walls, and will be a neat and substantial wooden structure. Mr M'Ivor, who has recently officiated on Specimen Hill, will officiate in the new chapel, we understand, and will also conduct a day school at the same place. The building will probably be completed in the course of the ensuing week. [77]

September 10 SHALLOW RUSH.—Some new shallow ground has just been opened at the rear of the Black Hill. A rush took place on Wednesday, and we hear that gold has been struck pretty plentifully in several places. There is no doubt that the whole of that locality is more or less auriferous, and the only wonder is that more attention has not been paid to the neighborhood.[78]

September 24 As part of the impromptu celebrations of the defeat of a land bill, a bonfire was lit on Black Hill, apparently visible throughout the diggings once dusk descended.[79]

October 16 The hill appears to be interlaced with numerous quartz veins; and the reef, which is of considerable size, comes to a crown on the highest part of it. This crown has either never been struck, or auriferously considered, must have been so shattered by subterraneous forces, that all the paying portions of it were broken up, and the gold thereby washed into what are now the alluvial workings. (Dr. Otway obtained quartz that yielded 3 oz, to the ton, but somehow it did not pay him.) On the surface, and at the heads of the small gullies, leading directly from the foot of the hill on the western and southern sides, the gold hitherto obtained in the alluvial workings, presents the appearance of having cooled in the quartz veins formed as above. The frequency also, with which "specimens" were discovered, gives additional feasibility to the theory, that at one time richly paying quartz existed on the hill, but that by elemental action it was disturbed from its central position and split up into the various veins, more or less auriferous, now proved to exist. [80]

December 12 James V. Penrose meets with other gentlemen to describe his quartz-crushing process. The meeting resolves to form a sub-committee to report upon the desirability of organising a company, to be called "The Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company"...[81]

December 17 BLACK HILL SLUICING.-A party have conceived the idea of sluicing this venerable land mark, and propose to erect a dam in the flat below, and pump the water thence to the height required for sluicing. Notice of application has been posted in the name of Norton and party.[82]

December 23 Norton and party for dam at foot of Black Hill. No appearance.[83]

December 23 Deal and party, surface grant, south side of Black Hill. No appearance.[83]

December 30 Dassett and party.-Surface grant, Black Hill Lead, and water privilege. Referred to the surveyor.[84]



January 1 The Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company applies to the Local Court for a lease on five acres at Black Hill Flat.[85]

January 1 Johnson and party, for [permission to hold a claim and race in reserve for four months], Black Hill. Granted.[85]

January 19 MR CALDER begs to inform his friends and the public that he will exhibit gratis his Gallery of Paintings, in the Hall of the Clarendon Hotel, this day and following days. Amongst the paintings are a View of... Ballarat, from the Black Hill, 200 guineas...[86]



March 9 BLACK HILL NEIGHBORHOOD. We have a shrewd suspicion that our escort returns owe most of their importance just now to the proceeds of our old grounds, our quartz workings, and our surface grants. The deep lead sinkings are notoriously slow and meagre in their yield in most instances; and while this has been the case, miners have perforce resorted to those sources of revenue adverted to above.

Large numbers of our population have no inclination or power to adventure upon the tedious and expensive deep sinking processes of our field, and thus the older and shallower grounds and quartz reefs have sprung afresh into notice and favor. Plenty of this sort of work may be seen in and about the Black Hill ; a good number of miners of all descriptions finding a subsistence, and in some cases a good deal more than that, on the old hill and its "dependencies." The top of the hill is well occupied by parties holding surface grants or working the quartz veins that run north and south through the hill. The quartz workers find their stuff, specimens, and debris from the surface downwards, to a depth rarely exceeding 40 or 50 feet at present ; and some of the claims are yielding tolerably well, albeit the business is carried on in the most primitive fashion. The surfacers with their grants, by clearing the old workings away bodily down to the sandstone or slate, conveying their stuff by railway to " tips " on the edge of the hill whence it is tilted down wooden troughs from landing to landing, or in one long descent, to the puddling machines by the creek side. The stuff yields about 1½ dwts per load, and gives a wage of about £5 per man per week, on the average. In the flat there are also several parties holding "surface" grants, and doing well. The ground is worked by paddocking out, as in the White Flat. One party have an engine erected, which hauls up the stuff, puddles it, and pumps the ground; the others are using the common horse-puddles, and working the ground by hand. The old Mopoke ground is still well worked by parties holding the larger areas granted by the last Regulations; and, as an instance of the old ground luck, we may mention the finding of a 16 oz nugget the other day by Endam and party in 130 feet sinking.[87]

March 12 Bentley v Marshall.—For assault. This was a row on the Black Hill about defendant's wife. Fined £5, or fourteen days' imprisonment.[88]

March 16 IF THE PORTMANTEAU now lying at my store opposite the Black Hill, be not taken away within fourteen days from this date, the same will be sold to defray expenses G. W. Potts, 18th March[89]


April 20 NOTICE.-A General Meeting of Shareholders of the Black Hill Co-operative Quartz Mining Company will take place on Tuesday (this day) at eight o'clock, p.m., at Knight's Hotel, Soldier's Hill, for the purpose of submitting a code of rules, and other business of importance. All interested are requested to attend. By order of the Committee. Ballarat, 20th April, 1858.[90]

April 27 Black Hill Co-operative Quartz Mining Company NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, that all shares in this company, on which the amount of £1 for call, now due, is not paid on or before Monday next, the 3rd May, will be forfeited. Amount to be paid to JAMES BAKER, Secretary, No. 10, Miner's Exchange, Ballarat, 27th April, 1858.[91]



June 4 An Act to facilitate the Formation of Mining Associations and to amend and extend the provisions of an Act passed in the eighteenth year of the reign of Her present Majesty intituled An Act for the better Regulation of Mining Companies and to render certain Preferable Liens and Mortgages of Personalty by Miners and Mining Companies valid without delivery and for other purposes, known as "Ireland's Act" or the "Mining Associations Act" assented to. This act introduced "the concepts of paid up shares, minimum par value and the limiting of liability to the amount unpaid on shares". However, the act "was not widely used largely because it was interpreted so as to impose liability on wealthy shareholders".[43]

June 5 Black Hill Co-operative Quartz Mining Company. A MEETING of shareholders will take place on Saturday evening next, 5th instant, at half-past seven o'clock, at the Exchange Hotel, Main Road. Shareholders are requested to attend, to consider business of importance. JAMES BAKER, Secretary.[92]

June 9 Black Hill Co-operative Quartz Mining Company.

A GENERAL meeting of the shareholders of this company was held on Saturday evening last, when it was resolved

1st. That a sufficient number of shares having been issued to justify the company in extending their operations, the works should accordingly be immediately proceeded with, and that the present shareholders he allowed the preference of taking up the unallocated shares.

2nd. That a general meeting of Share holders be held on Saturday evening next, at the Exchange Hotel, at half-past seven o'clock to elect by ballot the manager and officers of the Company.

3rd. That a call of one pound (£1) per share be made, to be paid, together with all arrears, on or before Saturday next, 11th inst. ; defaulters to forfeit their shares.

All moneys must be paid to the secretary, whose receipt alone will be recognised by the Company.

JAMES BAKER, Secretary. No. 1, Miners' Exchange.[93]

June 11 The Black Hill Flat Company is announced in The Star as a new company that would be working ground "in the lower portion of the Flat opposite the Hill."[94]

June 17 At a meeting of the shareholders of the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company "Mr. Penrose reported that there were now raised on the company's grounds six or seven hundred tons of quartz, and he was busily engaged in bringing forward and preparing the timber for the foundations of the engine and other apparatus. An office and storeroom have been already erected. The site of the engine and crushing-machine is being prepared...[95]

June 28 Four companies have been formed for the purpose of raising water from the Yarrowee Creek by steam power, and sluicing the Black Hill, Little Bendigo and the Brown Hill ranges. The total area of ground occupied by these companies is about 5,672 acres, and the capital necessary te enable them to commence operations is about £7,000. Another company is in course of formation, with a proposed capital of £3,000, on Ihe same principle as the other companies. The ground held by these companies will be worked by hired labor, and will give employment to about 320 men. On the Black Hill it will be necessary to lift the water to an elevation of 225 feet above the level of the Creek, necessitating the employment of an engine of 30 horse-power...

QUARTZ-There are numerous quartz reefs in the district, but generally unworked, through the want of machinery. The only quartz reefs now worked are the Black Hill and Monte Christo reefs, at which about fifty men contrive to earn a livelihood by washing the debris of the quartz, which in some claims yields as much as 2 ozs. to the ton. I am confident that if suit able machinery were employed on Ballarat for the extraction of gold from quartz, it would make an immense in crease to the wealth of the district, and I am much surprised that the capitalists of Ballarat do not direct their attention to this branch of mining and assist in developing the resources of this rich district, a matter which interests them as well as the miners.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,


Mining Surveyor for No. 2 District. 21st June, 1858.[96]


July 7 BLACK HILL CO-OPERATIVE QUARTZ MINING COMPANY. A general meeting of the shareholders will take place, on Thursday evening next, the 8th instant, at half-past seven o'clock, at the Unicorn Hotel, to receive the report of the Board of Management. All shareholders are particularly requested to attend, as it is contemplated changing the constitution of this company. JAMES BAKER, Secretary. 6th July, 1858.[97]

July 29 NEW QUARTZ REEF. - We hear that a new quartz reef has been discovered at the head of Nuggetty Gully, in the rear of the Black Hill. A party of prospectors who have been working about there for these four or five weeks past have reported to Mr Surveyor Fitzpatrick that they have discovered a reef there, which shows pretty well in a leader struck some twenty feet or so from the surface. Several nice looking specimens have been taken out, aud the prospect is a good one on the whole.[98]


August 16 TENDERS WANTED for the erection of a puddling machine, (labor and materials) for the Phoenix Company, Black Hill Flat.[99]

August 21 A lengthy article appears in The Star in which Penrose waxes lyrical about his extensive plans for quartz mining at Black Hill.[100]

August 24 MEETING OF QUARTZ MINERS. - A correspondent sends us the following report of the proceedings of the Black Hill quartz miners on Monday :- "A meeting of the quartz miners of the Black Hill took place on the hill this (Monday) morning at 10 o'clock, to take into consideration the necessity of forming a society for mutual protection against encroachment. The attention of the miners had been drawn to an article which appeared in the Star on Saturday last, in which it was plainly stated that the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company intended to drive 1700 feet under the various claims, and which Mr Penrose, the manager, at the meeting stated was correct, telling the miners that they had nothing to do with it, as they were only fossickers on the hill. It was unanimously resolved that a deputation of three miners should wait on the warden, and request an order to allow a surveyor to enter their tunnel, and make a survey of the same to see that the company is making no encroachment on the claims working on the hill. To cover any expenses attendant on it, the miners came forward and subscribed 2s 6d each to the number of fifty-six. It should be stated that the great majority of the miners on the hill have been working there for from three to four years, most of them having shafts varying in depth from 50 over 100 feet, on which a great amount of labor has been expended, and all are proceeding with the working of the claims as rapidly as circumstances will admit of."[101]

August 27 NOTICE. - To the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company - At a meeting of the quartz miners of the Black Hill, held on Wednesday morning, 25th August, the following resolution was unanimously adopted: "That this meeting decidedly objects to any drive or drives being made by the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company through any of the claims now occupied by various miners on the Black Hill." JOHN A. RICKETTS, Chairman of the Meeting.[102]


September 1 Waterloo Steam Sluicing Company, Black Hill, for 160 tons of split firewood, not less than twenty tons to be delivered weekly. Tenders to be sealed and addressed to the company, and delivered before one o'clock on Friday next, 3rd September, and marked Tenders for Firewood." ISAAC WHEELDON, Treasurer.[103]

September 9 NOTICE - A meeting of the Black Hill Quartz Miners was held to-day, (Tuesday), on the hill, to consider a request made to them through their representatives, appointed at the meeting on the 23rd of August, by the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company, for permission to drive a tunnel through their claims to reach a claim of the Company's at the north side of the hill. The resolution passed at the meeting on the 25th ult., was confirmed, viz., "That the miners of the Black Hill decidedly object to any drive or tunnel being taken through their claims, and that any such working will be considered as an encroachment, and treated accordingly." Messrs Ricketts, Evans and Arnot were requested to continue as representatives, to which they consented. JOHN A. RICKETTS, Chairman of the Meeting.[104]


October 9 WATERLOO SLUICING COMPANY. - The Waterloo Company at the Black Hill are now busily engaged in making an addition to their lifting apparatus. Already the company have a string of large hose piping reaching to the top of the face of the hill, a distance of some 300 feet or so, and now they are rigging a stage for the erection of other piping; so as to lift the water up thirty or forty feet higher, and by this means be enabled to sluice from the very hill top as it were. The engine is a splendid one, of large power, and has been behaving itself very well hitherto. As to the yield of the ground, we believe the company scarcely consider they have made a thorough trial yet. That there is gold in the stuff, it is next to impossible to doubt, and if there be not too large a proportion of clay, the enterprise can hardly fail to prove successful.[105]

October 9 BLACK HILL QUARTZ CLAIMS. The top of the hill is well taken up on the Mopoke side, and away up to the eastern ridge by small parties of quartz workers. If we did not know from past returns made there that the old Hill is pretty rich in quartz, we might have inferred as much from the steady perseverance of the men working there. But the yield from some of the veins of quartz struck at depths varying from ten to thirty and forty feet down, has been remarkably heavy. At the present time one or two parties are quietly pocketing capital wages and with steady work too; but this is trifling compared with what was netted some time back there. We know from reliable evidence that as much as from £50 to £60 per man has been taken out per week, for week after week at this place. So rich were some of the veins struck that the men were afraid to do their rough hammering and washing by daylight, and took home their treasure in bags to crush and wash. One Scotch family we wot of used to spend many a pleasant "nicht" at this work, the table being covered with the crushed mineral, and the several members of the family being busily employed in picking out the gold and "specimens." In some instances returns nearly as heavy were obtained by men who only worked half their time, spending the other half in nobblerising like sots and dolts as they were. Now, however, the luck of the miner there is not half so brilliant; although even now, as we before remarked, the steady workers are here and there making good wages. What has been, however, may be again, and we can only say that we wish it may be very quickly, for the benefit of those interested.[105]

October 9 An article appears in The Star which gives the impression the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company is doing work at the site, including a "tunnel opening out from the Hill towards the site of the crushing house"[105]

October 9 FOR SALE - One crown wheel, 4 feet diameter, with pinion; one drum, 4 feet; one do 1 foot 8 inches. Apply to Wm. Bradford, Tallow Chandler; Black Hill.[106]

October 11 NOTICE. - If the party who left a bullock dray at the Black Hill does not remove the same within fourteen days from this date, it will be sold to defray Expenses. - C. E. Hardiman. 10th October, 1858.[107]

October 23 A meeting of the shareholders of the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company passes a motion put forward by Gibbs "That no further works be proceeded with till Mr Erlam's financial statement be laid before the Company."[108]


November 3 At a meeting of the shareholders of the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company Penrose is reeled in again when Gibbs reveals he and Munday Wilson spoke to Fulton's in Melbourne, and was told "they did not believe in the practicability of Mr Penrose's patent, and could not make the machinery under £4,000, and would not guarantee that that amount would cover the cost. They would, however, complete the requisite machinery for working thirty-six stampers with a thirty-horse power engine, capable of crushing 50 tons per diem, for £1000." The meeting resolves to leave financial matters to a new committee, which includes Gibbs.[109]

November 4 STRAYED on to my premises. Black Hill, two black goats. Owner can have same on payment of expenses. Isaac Clarke. Black Hill.[110]

November 8 Waterloo Steam Sluicing Company, Black Hill. TENDERS are required for the Engine and Plant of the above Company: One 40 horse engine complete, with two Cornish Boilers, about ten tons, diameter of cylinder, 20 inches, three feet stroke, with four-eighth inch plungers complete, 450 feet of 11 and 12 inch piping. About 700 feet of sluice boxes, a blacksmith's shanty, anvil, bellows and tools complete, all new and in good order. Tenders to be delivered on or before Friday, 19th inst., addressed to the Secretary at the claim, foot of Black Hill. A person will be in attendance to show the engine, &c, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. WILLIAM BINGHAM, Secretary.[111] This ad was run for some days, then altered and run on 22 and 23 November with the tender submission date revised to 27 November and the secretary's name changed to William Broughen.[112]

November 29 WATERLOO STEAM SLUICING COMPANY, Black Hill. - A General Meeting will be held of the above Company, on Saturday next, the 4th December, at the Company's shanty, foot of Black Hill, when any person requiring the engine and plant can receive an answer as to price,.&c WM. BOUGHEN, Secretary. Ballarat, 27th November, 1858.[113]

November 30 Penrose announces "we have had twenty tons of quartz crushed at the crushing machine belonging to Messrs Holmes and Porter, Winter's Flat...[114]


December 2 A descriptive piece about the journey from Geelong to Ballarat states that on arriving at the outskirts of Ballarat "on rolls the coach, till that old familiar Black Hill looms up with its wrinkled white face."[115]

December 3 The results of the quartz crushing are presented to a meeting of the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company. In response, Gibbs moves that the company be wound up, but the motion is not passed. Gibbs resigns from the committee.[116]

December 6 WATERLOO STEAM SLUICING COMPANY, Black Hill. - A person will be in attendance at the company's shanty, Black Hill, from eight, a.m., to four, p.m., on Wednesday 8th inst., Saturday, 11th inst., Wednesday, 15th, and Saturday, the 18th inst., for the purpose of showing the engine, plant, &c., and naming price to intending purchasers. Ballarat, 4th Dec., 1858. WILLIAM BOUGHEN, Secretary.[117]

December 8 CHILD DROWNED.—On the same day the coroner held an inquest at Mopoke, Sulky Gully, on the body of a child of two years, named Mary Anne Simpson, who was drowned in a waterhole on the previous evening. From the evidence it appeared that the parents of the child were at their tent in the Black Hill Gully, and their three children had gone out to play. Shortly afterwards the father went away to work, and the mother coming out saw two of the children only. She became alarmed, and after a search in the neighborhood discovered the body of her little girl floating face downwards in a water hole, which was about thirty yards from the tent and had six feet of water in it. She at once recovered the body and medical aid was called in but without effect, the child being quite dead. A verdict of accidental death was returned. [118]

December 13 TUESDAY, 14th DECEMBER. To Storekeepers and Others. S. LAZARUS & CO., have received instructions to sell by auction, on the premises of Mr Praswell, Black Hill Flat, near Union Hotel, on Tuesday, the 14th inst., at twelve o'clock, sharp, A large assortment of Staffordshire crockery, hams, currants, weights and scales, Byas's porter, shovels, sardines, pickles and other groceries, 2 American stoves, a large counter, and a few lots of household furniture. After which The Weatherboarded Store, 41 feet deep, with a frontage of 56 feet, will be offered. The store and stock are positively for sale without reserve, on account of the owner leaving for England in consequence of ill health.


View of Ballaarat1858, likely to be the lithograph referred to at left.

December 22 LITHOGRAPHIC VIEW OF BALLARAT. Ballarat West is badly situated for view taking, and we do not know of any point from which a good observation can be made which shall enable any one to represent a correct idea of the size of the place, and include its principal features. Messrs Deutsch & Ferguson, the well-known lithographers, (whose office adjoins our own), have for warded for our inspection a lithographic engraving or drawing on stone, of Ballarat West as viewed from the Black Hill, in which they have endeavored to depict such of the leading features of the place as are possible. The engraving which is about 18 by 24 inches in size, is a work of considerable merit, and bears a strong resemblance to an antique steel engraving. The foreground is highly picturesque. The Cricket Ground forms an interesting portion of the scene. To the extreme left, the eye takes in the Gas Works and the commencement of the Main Road. Next come the bold outlines of the English and Weslyan churches, Bath's Hotel, the Theatre Royal, and so on to the Hospital, which object is to the extreme right. The arrangement of the houses in the market Square, Mair-street, and near the old Post Office, is very accurate. It is pleasing to find that Ballarat possesses within itself the capacity to produce works of this description. [120]


Quartz mining... had not yet been so vigorously developed as it had been at the Sandhurst (Bendigo) field, where at this time quartz reefing occupied a prominent position. The necessity for capital to equip the quartz and deep alluvial mines resulted in the formation of joint-stock companies, formed under "Ireland's Act," which permitted limited liability partnership.[65]

The Black Hill Quartz Crushing Company continued to employ a large number of men, and its battery of 24 heads was the largest in the district...[65]

A water supply for the gold field was receiving attention. [65]


January 8 At a meeting of the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company a motion to wind up the company and dispose of the plant, claims, and stock is passed unanimously.[121]

January 14 The plant, claims, and stock of the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company are sold at auction without reserve.[122]

January 26 An encroachment dispute was heard yesterday (Tuesday) before Mr Warden Daly, the dispute having reference to some spare ground in a quartz claim on the Black Hill. The parties were Spanhake, complainant v Ricketts and party (of 5) defendants. Mr Walsh appeared for complainants, and Mr McDermott for defendants. The Warden made an order that Spanhake should have 20 feet and all the spare ground to the south, and that Ricketts and party should have 40 feet and all the spare ground to the north.[123]

January 29 FOR SALE, a Bargain - A large wooden store, butcher's shop, and outhouses, known as M'Nee & Brown's Store, Black Hill Flat. Apply to MITCHISON BROTHERS, Main Road.[124]


February 8 A "Notice of Partnership" appears in The Star announcing the formation of the Black Hill Company.[125]

February 3 Waterloo Steam Sluicing Company, Black Hill. NOTICE.-All persons having any demands on the above company to send in their bills on or before 8th of February next. All demands after that date will not be acknowledged, as the company is about to be dissolved. Address the Secretary, Wm. Boughen, Post Office, Ballarat. N.B. For Sale - Four splendid 8 inch force pumps, 279 feet 10½ inch pipes, and 189 feet feet 11½ inch pipes. For particulars apply to - JAMES BAKES, Auctioneer. 30th January, 1859.[126]



This is the name of the company formed out of the remains of the "late lamented" Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company, formed ostensibly for the purpose of testing the merits of Mr Penrose's patent. The patent, however, was never tried, albeit the patentee was tried till he lost his temper, and nearly all hope in the good faith of his erewhile ardent patrons. Of how the ponderous Pen- rose wheel was wheeled off by the original company before either centre or circumference had taken visible or tangible shape or substance; of how said company decided upon then erecting a battery of stampers, contracted for materials, commenced preparations for the erection of a house for crushing operations, and then collapsed and gave up the ghost, is it not written in the minute book of the late secretary, and in the books of record of both our Police Courts? All this, then, is well known, and will, probably, be long remembered, by some at least, of those who once rejoiced in the possession of shares in the Ballarat Quartz Crushing Company. In fact, the history was one of crude projection, dubious management, and ignominious failure. Where the blame lay, or what dodging there was in the con duct of the affairs of the deceased, we know not. We only know the results, and regret, for the sake of all the losers in the undertaking, that so promising a scheme should so utterly have miscarried. However, the old adage, that "it is an ill wind that blows nobody any good," has perhaps, been exemplified in this as in other catastrophes. The company whose name appears at the head of this report, has sprung up on the ruins of the late company, and has, doubtless, been able to avail itself of the experience acquired from an intimate acquaintance with all the ins and outs of the defunct Penrose enterprise. The new company has got the ground of the old, and has largely added to its area; has taken to some very substantial items of its debris, and goes to work now, of course, with a tolerably accurate knowledge of what lies before it in the way of profit and loss; or at least, in so far as it is possible to calculate upon the issue of any similar undertaking. The company consists of six persons, to wit, Messrs E. A. Wynne, R. B. Gibbs, S. Wilson, W. Bailey, S. M Gibbs, and W. C. Smith; and they have a quartz area of 788 x 100 yards. As published in yesterday's (Friday's) Star, the company have applied for a ten years' lease of the area in question, and figures amounting to £8000 occur in the gazetted list of applications, but how they are intended to apply to the different portions of the enterprise, we cannot, from the ga- zetted notice, divine. On Friday, however, we went over the works and were courteously put in possession, by one of the above-named gentlemen, of divers particulars, which we will now proceed to jot down.

The company have purchased, for £700, that splendid engine erected under the hill by the late Waterloo Steam Sluicing Company. This engine is, we believe, the largest in the district. It is of forty horse power, has two boilers, and a ponderous fly-wheel weighing 6½ tons, and measuring some 16 feet in diameter. The engine is by M'Clellan, of the Clutha Works, Glasgow, and cost the Waterloo Company, we are told, £1800. The Black Hill Flat Company purposes erecting a battery of 12 stampers to begin with, intending eventually to increase the number to 36 or 40, should the claim prove remunerative. Crushing for hire will also be done, and already several thousand tons of quartz on the hill await the action of the battery. The cost of forming a solid foundation for the stamping bed will be considerably in- creased, as the only place available happens to be where an old drive exists. Contracts have been taken by Messrs Newman Brothers for castings and fixings at £575, and by Dow & Co for stampers, at £149 ; besides which there is a carpenter's contract for erection of shed and other works. The stampers are to be heavy enough in all conscience; with heads of iron and iron boxes, each stamper will weigh 7½ cwt. To bear the incessant concussion of a series of such enormous stampers, it follows that a proportionately substantial solid foundation must be procured for the bed. For this the company has provided ponderous timbers measuring 15 X 18 inches square, two layers of which will be laid on the solid reef horizontally, cross-wise, checked, and bolted; on these will be fixed timbers of the same dimensions, and some 8 or 10 feet long, in a vertical position; and on them, when bolted, will be laid a thick iron bed. On such a bed we should imagine the stampers, heavy though they be, may beat as furiously as they please and yet with impunity. Additional expenses will be incurred, moreover, because of the low level ol the engine, and the consequent necessity of extra mechanical contrivances in order to attain a proper working level for the crushing batteries, ln all, we are informed, that some £2000 will be laid out before work can be begun. It is expected, however, that operations will commence in about a month, and that with 12 stampers only some 200 tons of quartz per week can be run under the battery.

Mr Jones, the engineer of the Ballarat Gas Company, is the engineer of this company also, and under his directions the plans of the company's works have been prepared. Of the materiel of the company, we need scarcely remark that it may be regarded as symptomatic of a healthy confidence in the commercial possibility of remunerative quartz crushing on Ballarat. When we see half a dozen men old it mercantile experience, intimately acquainted with the gold fields generally and this one in particular, and possessing capital within themselves adequate to the thorough testing of the experiment, there is every reason to hope for something definite and reliable as a result from their enterprise. That the result may have not only those elements, but that also of ample success will be, we are sure, the wish of all who wish well to the interest of the district.[127]


April 26 NEARLY all the early essays in quartz mining in Victoria were unsuccessful. Who does not remember the works erected some four or five years since by Dr Otway, at the Black Hill, and after him, by Mr Milner Stephen, at the same place; and who does not equally remember the profitless results, and the consequent disappointment and disgust which ensued? Not very dissimilar were the ventures there of the Port Phillip Company, of the same company at Dead Horse, and of other parties in other portions of this district, when crushing apparatus of some kind or other was erected and experiments made - experiments made with sanguine hope of success, and with occasional gleams of even bright promise, but ultimately abandoned as unremunerative to the experimenters.[128]


October 29 - letter from James Eddy published in The Star [129]

  • " of the shareholders in the Independent Quartz Company [possibly the Independent Quartz Mining Company], Black Hill..."
  • "...the crushing has proved disastrous, in our opinion..."
  • "I am of opinion that had we efficient machinery of our own our claim would be a notable one."


During 1860 quartz mining made rapid progress; new companies were formed to exploit all the known outcrops, and the once-deserted gullies of the shallow alluvial miner were dotted with batteries. In the Ballarat district alone some 30 companies employed 350 heads of stamps. A yield of 3 dwt to the ton in many cases covered expenses, and good dividends were paid to shareholders from quartz yielding up to ½ oz to the ton. From the Prince Regent Gully to the northern end of Black Hill, a continuous line of claims marked the outcrop of the quartz reefs and their extension under the alluvial flats. Prominent dividend-paying mines were the Black Hill, the Independent, the Enterprise, the Llanberris, the Last Chance, and the Cornish United. The record for quartz mining in the year was held by the Black Hill Company, which treated 15,256 tons of quartz for a yield of 3,890 oz of gold; the company's works were situated at the foot of the hill and consisted of a battery of 24 heads of stamps. Large bodies of quartz were mined by open cuts and tunnels.[65]

However, the Black Hill Company's battery was no longer the largest in the area. "The striking of a quartz reef in the Burra Burra alluvial workings led the company to erect a battery of 50 heads, the largest in the neighbourhood."[65]

A Sludge Commission, after a year's sitting, formulated a scheme whereby a main channel was made for the creek... at White Flat...[65]

A water supply for the district was secured by the Government purchasing a reservoir, known as Kirk's...[65]

July 17 The Black Hill Company, or Ballarat Quartz-crushing Company, by the introduction of blankets in connexion with the amalgamating troughs, are saving upwards of 10 percent, above the former yield.[130]

September 18 An Act to limit Liability of Mining partnerships, known as "Pyke's Act", is assented to. This act "was simpler and ultimately the most successful of [the 1850s] legislative attempts to provide for registration of companies and limited liability".[43]

November During a flood "a party of miners near Black Hill took the opportunity to shovel into the raging waters a huge pile of mining rubbish that had plagued them for months.'[37]


One effect of the formation of quartz companies in the previous year was noticeable. "Wild cats," where machinery was erected without any hope of success or the stone was almost devoid of gold, were sold up during the year. The losses involved in these speculations arrested the progress of the quartz mining industry, but this was, in part, overcome by the payable results obtained elsewhere, notably by the Black Hill, the Cornish United, the Danish, the Llanberris, and the Canadian quartz mining companies. The Black Hill Company enlarged its claim during the year, purchasing among other blocks one of 46 feet along the line of lode at a cost of £2,000 or £43 10s per foot, which price was considered as reasonable. By the end of the year the company had nearly completed a 60-head battery, the largest then in the colony; to drive this an 80 h.p. engine, supplied by four Cornish boilers, was installed.[65]

Black Hill Flat c.1861 [131]

The miner's pose is somewhat forlorn, and it is tempting to interpret this photograph by Richard Daintree as a statement about the industrialisation of gold mining at the time.

September 23 - Black Hill Company (Limited) registered.[132]


Quartz mining for the year was more businesslike and the boom fluctuations of the preceding years had collapsed. Economy in production was resorted to in every instance, and in many mines, low-grade ore was profitably worked. The Majestic company at Black Hill treated a quantity of puddling machine refuse for a return of 1dwt to the ton. The Black Hill Company's working costs amounted to 6s 6d per ton; this company employed 90 men and worked from an open cut which attained a depth of 70 feet during the year.[65]

On the Black Hill the Surprise, the Majestic, the Little Two Ton, the Criterion and the Independent companies were at work. Three-dwt quartz was now regarded as sufficiently good to yield a fair return on a moderate outlay.[65]

During the year the railway line from Melbourne, via Geelong, was completed, the coaching days came to an end, and the escort returns were no longer published.[65]

Promotional illustration by Herman Deutsch [133]
  • Mine site 42 acres in size
  • Capital £26,000
  • ...Black Hill Co. organised in July 1861...
  • Tunnels 7½ Ft high by 8 Ft wide are constructed through the Hill, both for Conveyance of Quartz to the Mill, & for taking the debris to Embankments. Total length of tunnels 1200 yards...
  • Engine 100 horsepower
  • 60 stamping heads
  • Water Supply consists of Reservoirs holding 1½ Million Gallons of Water obtained from the Yarrowee Creek, running through the ground.
  • Water pumped at 500 gallons per minute

September 10 The "Black Hill Mining Company, Ballarat" wins an award at the International Exhibition of 1862 in London, England, for "quartzose stuff of low produce skilfully and successfully worked." [134]


At Black Hill the cutting on the crown of the hill was now 70 feet deep.[65]

...the tribute system, which was now gaining ground, was applied to the Wellingtonia, the Globe, and the London companies at Black Hill Flat.[65]


Quartz and alluvial mining went on steadily, but with no marked advance.[65]

The Black Hill and Independent companies treated a large quantity of low-grade stone, averaging 1 dwt 11 gr to the ton.[65]

January? The mine becomes more reliant on quartz obtained from mine-shafts and begins winding down open-cut mining. Hours of operation are reduced from 24 hours a day to 12-hour days.

December 31 Open-cut mining ceases. Hours of operation are reduced to 8 hours a day.


The Black Hill, the Two Ton, the Majestic, and Independent mines at Black Hill worked large bodies of low-grade ore to a depth of 150 feet from the surface.[65]

Mining and sluicing at the foot of black hill. [135]

This image is undated, but there appears to be a considerable amount of mullock west of the poppet head, suggesting it is some time after 1865. Note the opacity of the water flowing over the low weir.

November 1 The Independent Quartz Mining Company is registered, with James Eddy cited as the manager. [136]


In quartz mining but little change was noticeable. The Majestic and Black Hill companies, at Black Hill, had success.[65]

September The year 1866 was memorable in the history of deep lead mining at Ballarat, for in September of that year the frontage system of claim registration was abolished, and Crown leases for defined areas were issued; this not only tended to greater security of tenure, but enabled the miners to expend time and money in opening up mines without fear of litigation and other losses.[65]


The quartz mines of Ballarat East continued to prospect at shallow depths.[65]

The Black Hill Company's yields improved, and the Two Ton also gave a better average return. The Majestic Company was on the down grade.[65]


[try to find out more about the United Working Miners' Company][65]

At Ballarat East the New Wellingtonia Gigantea Company was formed, and a block of stone within the railway reserve was worked.[65]

The Independent Company, on Black Hill, had ceased work, and the claim was acquired by the Black Hill Company, which produced 5,224 oz, the largest output since 1862. Small yields were obtained in the Majestic Company.[65]

Ballaarat from the Black Hill 1868 [137]

One wonders whether the artist, Robert Bruce, was placing aesthetics above accuracy when he chose blue for the colour of the water.


Among quartz mining ventures, the old companies produced less gold, and the newer claims had not as yet proved anything payable. The Majestic Company raised slightly better ore. Returns from the Black Hill [and other] companies fell away.[65]


Many of the mines were now letting blocks on tribute to miners whose services the companies were unable to employ.[65]

In quartz mining there was little of interest. At Black Hill the Majestic Company ceased operations early in the year. The Two Ton Company crushed only small quantities of quartz. The Black Hill Company's output decreased to 13,687 tons for 1,385 oz, against 16,160 tons for 3,178 oz in 1869.[65]

North Queen Quartz Gold Mining Claim, Black Hill, Ballarat. Photograph attributed to William H. Bardwell. [138]

Note that at this stage (c.1870), the quartz tailings are on the east side of the stamping mill.


A depression in alluvial (deep lead) mining "led to increased activity in the quartz mines. More than a third of the total gold output gold output now came from the quartz reefs."[65]

The Black Hill mine, now largely worked by tributers, gave an improved return.[65]


In quartz mining but little improvement was noticeable.[65]

At Black Hill, the Majestic Company crushed 3,600 tons for 538 oz. The Black Hill tributers crushed quartz carrying ½ oz of gold to the ton, and paid dividends amounting to £5,332.[65]

A number of parties were engaged prospecting on the Black Hill Flat, and rich veins were met with.[65]


In 1873, owing to the failure of many joint-stock companies in the boom of 1870 and to the introduction of the tribute system in many mines, co-operative companies again came into vogue, and worked both quartz and alluvial.[65]

Mining at Ballarat East improved all round, and satisfactory returns were won by the Grand Duke, the Duchess and the Parade companies at Black Hill Flat.[65]

August 1 - Black Hill Co. applies for a mining lease[139]


The working expenses in alluvial mines increased and the yields fell away to such an extent during 1874 that more attention was paid to the quartz reefs of Ballarat East, where the Indicator had now been recognised and the source of the rich specimens had been located.[65]

Deep sinking for quartz was continued by the Sovereign Company at Ballarat East, a depth of 800 feet being attained. The chief gold-producing mines were in the vicinity of the Black Hill Flat, where the Black Hill, the Parade, the Parade Extended, the Countess, and the Duchess were located. Rich specimens were obtained from the Indicator; one found by the Parade Extended Company in August weighed 153 oz in the rough and yielded 133 oz of gold; another found in May in the Black Hill Company's workings weighed 115 oz and yielded 100 oz of gold.[65]

The Black Hill Company won 3,437 oz from 5,886 tons.[65]

...the Two Ton mine at Black Hill had a diminished yield.[65]

For the year 1874 the general average of gold per ton of the quartz crushed was 7 dwt 15 gr as compared with 5 dwt 11 gr for the year 1873.[65]


In quartz mining there was an improvement.[65]

Many of the smaller claims on the Black Hill Flat were amalgamated to form the Black Hill United.[65]

The Black Hill Company crushed 5,845 tons of ore for 3,769 oz of gold. The Black Hill South and the Black Hill South Extended crushed small parcels of ore of fair grade.[65]


At Ballarat East the Indicator was now recognised from Black Hill to Canadian Gully, and the mines along its course were opening up well.[65]

In December a specimen containing 196 oz 7 dwt of gold was found on this line in the Parade Claim.[65]

The Black Hill United Company began to open up large makes of payable stone, but the yields from the Black Hill Company decreased to 2,025 oz from 3,768 in 1875.[65]


At Black Hill Flat, the Parade and the Victoria United companies met with some fine specimens. The returns from the Black Hill United Company decreased, though a larger tonnage of quartz was crushed.[65]


The Parade, the Victoria United, and the Black Hill United yielded well, several rich specimens being discovered, including one of 136 oz found in August by the Black Hill United Company.[65]

The yields from the Llanberris and the Black Hill companies were better than in the preceding year.[65]


North Queen Quartz Gold Mine c.1882 [140]

By this stage (c.1882), there is a large pile of quartz tailings on the west side of the stamping mill.

1894 [141]

A very still day, judging from the steam plume.


Workers at the Brickworks, circa 1930 [142]

Wouldn't it be fantastic to be able to name these people.


Three men and a dog at a windlass - Black Hill, 1931 [143]

There is no rope on the windlass, and no hole in the ground below it. So what's going on?


January 7 A small grass fire at Black Hill has been brought under control. The blaze started about 8pm on Thursday night at Sim Street, with the fire under control by 8.30pm. CFA confirmed four tankers were dispatched to the blaze.[144]

Likely site of the fire. Photo by Neil Huybregts 9 January 2016

To be sorted

1881 ' NOTES ON A TRIP TO VICTORIA. No. XI. Ballarat Quartz Mining. This chapter is to be devoted to the subject of quartz mining, and I make the fact known thug early, in order that those who do not like the fopic, may skip it. Tue Black hill was opened for alluvial mining in October, 1851, or some two months after the discovery of Golden Poinfc. It was not, howerer. until 1854 that attention began to be devoted to the question of quartz mm* ing. The existence of the stone was well knowo, for several large reefs had been cut through on Black-lull, and some splendid specimens were from time to time met wi',h, but while gold was to be so easily obtained in its pure state else* where, there was not mnch inducement to follow np the reefs, and they were con" sequently left almost undisturbed. From the discovery of gold in Victoria up to 1854, however, a good deal of con* troversy was earned on as to the probable origin of gold, and the order of its distribution. But whether it was the result of electrical action, of vaporific sublimation, of precipitation, or whether it "growed," then as now, there was considerable diversity of opinion. It, however, came to be pretty generally accepted from the result of that con* troversy that qaarlz was the matrix from which the glittering dross originally came, and emergent from this theory came a belief pretty generally enter* tamed amongst those who pietended to scientific knowledge, that the quartz lodes would one day lead up to that yast storehouse of nature whence all the alluvial gold had originally come. In pursuance of this craze," for such a form it bad assumed, Dr. Otway in 1854, turned his attention to the quartz lodes contained in the Black-hill. The stone had been tested some time previously, but although the assay made showed that some of the quartz was remarkably rich, nothing was done to utilise it. He erected two Chilian mills, which were to be driven by wind, bat the windimill proved a failure as a motive power, and this finally led to the enterprising doctor's abandonment of the enterprise. Some little time later, Mr George Mil- Der Stephen followed Dr. Otway in an

effort to turn the Black-bill reefs to account, but he, 100, failel, and a long interval followed during which nothing was done. The Port Phillip Company was the next to tackle the stone, but for some lime met with very indifferent success and finally removed their scene of operations to the Clunes. The Black-Jiil! Quarlz Mitiin? Company began work in January, 1862, and from that time to the cod of December, 1569, embracing a period of eight years, they crushed 250.575 tons of stone, which yielded 36 1850z?. 15dwt. 19^r. of gold, or an average of 2dwt. 21*31o;r: per ton. The value of the gold thus obtained was £145.541 6s 3J, of which £21,730, or 10 per cent upon the capital, was paid in dividends. These facts will convey a fair idea oT the success which attended the early operations of the company, and will also go to show to what perfection quartz crushing and amalgamating had been brought up to that period. This rate of productiveness was maintained uniformly up to within the last year or two, when the returns fell off to some extent, owing to the increased cost of getting out the stone. The battery,, notwithstanding nearly tfrentf n?as of stampers, similar in all respects to those in work throughout the Inangahua, The batteries are all telf feeding, there being one shoot <o each five head, and the feeders are found toanswer all the required purposes. One hand only is employed to break the stone to the required gauge, and generally overlook the machinery. In connection with the battery there are three baddies, one conical amalgamator, and one Chilian mill. A rather long stretch of tabling is used upon which baegiog is laid instead of blankets. There is positively nothing new in connection with the system of amalgamation, for it v precisely the same as that in use twenty>five years ago, the secret of the success achieved lies in the attention which is paid to details in working, such as regulating the flow of water to the nature of the stuff passing through, keeping the stamps evenly fed, and preserving the parity of the silver. The whole sixty head can be cteaned nn, and the bar of cold turned out in two hours. Five shillings per ton is the rate charged to the public for crushing. The firewood for the engine is brought from a distance of twelve miles, and ooita 6s 6i per tin delivered. Two pennyweights per ton pays well. The company have got sevtral reefs in their lease, the lode? ranging in thickness from 1 foot to 20 feet, but none of the hill quartz has been taken out for some time, as it had been found necessary to put in a fresh level owing to the dangerous character of tho old workings above, which had been rooted out in the early days with out any regard to system. I was told that a trial parcel of stone had been sent to this battery from Clunes, and a higher yield obtained from it than could be got by the Port Phillip Company. A large area of the Black-hill Company's lease is now held under tribute, and some of the tributors are doing fairly well. In the centre of the old Black-Li!! Flat, tho Queen Company, which is a sub-tribute of the company, have sunk a shaft to a depth of 500 feet, and were working a reef 5 feet wide, which was yielding from loz. to 2-izs. per ton, and at tbo time of our visit several projects were in. the market to form other companies to prospect for the same reef. Having gathered these few facts we prepared to retrace our steps back to town. On the way we called in to the cricket ground, where a match was being played between the Ballarat and Geelong Eleven, but it was a very tame affair, snd there were not more than fifty or sixty spectators p-.'pseut. The ground is a delightful onr, as level and well kept as a billiard-table. In the evening we strolled down the main road, but ie was a dismal undertaking, for the main road," which at one i time was a mile and a-half long, now extends hardly farther down than Bakery-hill, all below that is desolation. The old "Charley Napier" Theatre, where Thatcher sang and Lola Montez danced where the truly Inimitable Barlow exerted his versatile genius where Catherine Hayes, Anna Bishop, Celeste, Brooke, Ketn, Jefferson, and a I host of oilier reigning theatrical stars, nearly all since dead, received the boisterous plaudits of multitude's of light* hearted diggers— has vanished from view. Not one vestige now remains of that once "ball of dazzling light," where showers of golden nuggets were nightly rained upon pretty actresses, and thous<> ands of rugged hearts fell captive at the shrine of painted' woman. Twice burnt to the groutd, and twice rebuilt, the Charley has at last succumbed to the avenging hand of Time, and its site is now only marked by a heap of mullock. The street, too, in the vicinity, once the great highway between Melbourne, Geelong, and Ballarat, and choked from morning till night with an impetuou stream of traffic, is now silent ai v graveyard. The old Montezuma, and Victoria theatres on the main road, have also yielded to the same inexorable hand, as, indeed, have all the old rendezvous oi the early day?, and those who kept them. Tearing ourselves from the scene of so many gorgeous associations wo returned to Lydiard-street. Although i was but 8 p.m. the town wore a vc deserted appearance, Bath's Hot"', was as silent as a church, aud scarcely a soul was to be seen about it. The early closure movements seems to be strictly carried out amongst the shopkeepers, and this probably accounts for the scene of desolation winch the street* presented in nil directions. Having called in at the Public Library, and devoted an hour ransacking the old files of tlie Ballarat Times, for the years 1854-5 and upwaids, we concluded our peregrinations for the cloy. On the following day, we visited the famous Band of Hope, and other mines, some account of which will be given in my next.[145]

See also

Black Hill

Black Hill Flat

Black Hill - the White Cliffs of Ballarat

James Lancelot Stormont

William Frederick Osborne

Dr Otway


  1. See Stevens' patent rotating stamper head – court challenge for the complete transcript.
  2. Otway did not arrive in Ballarat until 16 January 1854. It is possible that Stormont is referring to William Frederick Osborne's windmill, erected in 1853, or he may have his years confused, and be referring to the mill set up by Otway and Osborne at the base of the hill in 1854.
  3. 30 August 1854 was a Wednesday, and it appears Lady Hotham's visit to Black Hill was on a Sunday or Monday.
  4. This article is based on the Geelong Advertiser article on 30 August 1854, so it's not clear how The Courier knew Lady Hotham's visit to Black Hill was on a Monday.


  1. THE DISCOVERY OF GOLDEN POINT. (1854, January 11). Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (Vic. : 1851 - 1856), p. 4 (DAILY). [1]
  2. To the Editor of the Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer. (1854, January 20). Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (Vic. : 1851 - 1856), p. 4 (DAILY). [2]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Turner, Henry Gyles (1904). A history of the colony of Victoria : from its discovery to its absorption into the Commonwealth of Australia. Longmans, Green, London [3]
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  23. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named rbsmyth
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  27. BALLARAT. (1854, April 25). Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (Vic. : 1851 - 1856), p. 4 (DAILY). [23]
  28. GEELONG GOLD CIRCULAR. (1854, May 15). Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (Vic. : 1851 - 1856), p. 4 (DAILY). [24]
  29. BALLARAT. (1854, May 15). Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (Vic. : 1851 - 1856), p. 4 (DAILY). [25]
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  40. LEGAL NEWS. (1855, March 20). The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), p. 5. [34]
  41. An Act for granting duties of Customs upon Gold exported from Victoria (1855) (Victoria)[35]
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Further reading

External links

Neil Huybregts 12:59, 3 July 2014 (EST)
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