Phoenix Foundry

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Phoenix Foundry. Courtesy Federation University Australia Historical Collection [Cat. No. 6599.2].
Phoenix Foundry machine shop. Courtesy Federation University Australia Historical Collection [Cat. No. 6599].

The Phoenix Foundry (1857-1906) fabricated iron and brass products - including engines and pumping gear for the mining industry, locomotives, steam rollers, water pipes, water gauges and diverse small items. Throughout its operation the business was located at premises on Armstrong Street, Ballarat (where Central Square now stands).


Contents

Background

In 1852, at the age of thirty-three and after a year of operating his own engineering business at Williamstown[1], Lancashire-born blacksmith and engineer George Threlfall (1819-1897) arrived on the Sebastopol gold plain and immediately undertook blacksmith work repairing picks and tools for the miners. Little did he know that this fledgling business would be the genesis of the most iconic business of nineteenth-century Ballarat.


At approximately thirty-nine years of age, English mechanical engineer Richard Carter (c1814-1883) came to Australia on board the Arrogant - arriving in Melbourne on 19 April 1853. He soon travelled to the Ballarat goldfields.


Born in the year 1830 in Belfast (Ireland), mechanical engineer William Henry Shaw (1830-1896) arrived in Australia in October 1853. He worked briefly with George Threlfall at Sebastopol, then moved to Geelong to manage the small foundry of Frederick Moore.[2]


Twenty-four year old English-born iron moulder Robert Holden (c1831-?) left his home in Belfast (Ireland) in late 1854 and travelled from Liverpool to Melbourne on board the James Baines - arriving in February 1855. Afterwards he joined his brother-in-law William Henry Shaw in Ballarat.

History

Foundation to Incorporation

In March 1857 George Threlfall joined in business with Richard Carter, William Henry Shaw and Robert Holden. They relocated Threlfall's successful engineering enterprise from Sebastopol to new premises in Armstrong Street, Ballarat.[3] This business was then known variously as the Phoenix Iron Works Company, Phoenix Foundry or Messrs Carter and Co. By 15 April 1857 they were advertising that they were open for business as engineers, millwrights, boiler makers, smiths, iron founders and brass founders.[4]


In January 1858 George Threlfall left the partnership.[5]


Over the span of a year, including the second-half of 1863 and the first-half of 1864, the Phoenix Foundry became embroiled in a public scandal concerning the Soho Foundry and land rights. This scandal was heavily covered by the local newspaper, The Star. The trade of ironfounding requires access to a certain kind of sand for castings. Such sand was found in an excellent deposit at Mount Pleasant - to which the Crown had granted licenses for its use to the Victoria Foundry. In September 1863 the proprietors of the Soho Foundry applied for possession of some of this land, on the grounds that the Victoria Foundry was not fulfilling its obligation to utilise all of the land for the removal of sand or loam - instead, it was monopolising the supply at great cost to other ironfounders in the area. On 2 June 1864 Mr Thomas, one of the proprietors of the Soho Foundry, was forced to complain to the Ballarat Mining Board that this land had since been wrongfully taken from him through the underhand dealings of the other ironfounders - resulting in William Shaw, of the Phoenix Foundry, purchasing the land for the paltry sum of 8 pounds.[6]

Incorporation to 1889

Phoenix Company's foundry, Ballarat, 1882. Courtesy Art Gallery of Ballarat [Purchased with funds from the L.J. Wilson Bequest].


1890 to Closing


Closing

Site

Phoenix Foundry Land Sale, 1947. Courtesy Federation University Australia Historical Collection [Cat. No. 6599.2 image gift of Ron Woods].


Innovations

Community Involvement

Community Organisations

Ballarat Agricultural Society - Ballarat Benevolent Asylum - Ballarat Hospital - Ballarat Orphan Asylum - Ballarat School of Mines - Smeaton, Spring Hill and Bullarook Agricultural Association

Events

Phoenix Foundry Model Locomotive Engine. Courtesy Ballarat Historical Society Collection [Image copyright].

For the Ballarat-hosted Australian Juvenile Industrial Exhibition of 1878 a Model Locomotive Engine was made by Phoenix Foundry apprentices, including: James Campbell Brown (1857-1936), Francis Henry Davis (1858-1940), Louis Ludwig Ballhausen (1857-1912), Samuel John Morgan (1856-1939) and Herman Recard Warlond (1857-1948).

Clubs, etc.

Phoenix Foundry Brass Band - Phoenix Foundry Cricket Club - Phoenix Foundry Dramatic Club - Phoenix Foundry Football Club - Phoenix Foundry Glee Club - Phoenix Foundry School of Artisans - Phoenix Foundry Quadrille Club

Works Produced

See also: Works produced by the Phoenix Foundry for the mining industry - Civil engineering works by the Phoenix Foundry - Locomotives produced by the Phoenix Foundry - Miscellaneous works produced by the Phoenix Foundry

Workplace Relations

See also: The Iron Workers' Strike at Ballarat in 1889 - Phoenix Foundry Employés Accident Association

The People

See also: People of Phoenix Foundry by Category


Double asterisk (**) following a name indicates an individual who died as a result of events in the foundry.


A
B
T. Bacon - S. T. Bailey - Samuel L. Bailey - Louis Ludwig Ballhausen (1857-1912) - G. Ballom - M. Banks - P. Banks - Felix Edward Barbat (1858-1928) - T. Barlow - G. Barnet - J. Barnett - A. Barr - James Barr - R. Barr - J. Barrett - J. Bartes - G. Bartlett - James W. Batie (1823-1907) James William Batie (1856-1937) - William Batie (1861-?) - J. Baxindale - W. Bay - J. Bayard - Walter Reed Bechervaise (1861-1927) - G. Belcher - Alexander Bell (c1851-1931) - F. Bell - T. Bell - W. Bell - W. Benoit - John Bennett - R. Bennett - W. M. Bennett - Harold John Thomas Berryman (1884-1951) - Robert Jeffrey Binder (1831-1906) - James Binnie (1854-1898) - UNKNOWN Birch - C. Bishop - P. Black - William Blair (c1834-1876) - Alfred Ernest Blee (1871-1910) - William George Blee (1875-1929) - George Henry Blight (1854-1937) - George Blomeley (1851-1898) - Albert William Bodycomb (1863-1945) - Alfred Bodycomb - Bedlington Bodycomb (1855-1919) - J. H. Bodycomb - John Rhys Bodycomb (1861-1897) - Robert Bodycomb (1857-?) - Thomas C. Bodycomb (1829-1919) - J. Bohan - Jacob Boller (1871-1886) - John Robert Borch (c1835-1900) - Alfred Bothroyd (1872-1936) - Philip Bowen (1882-1927) - R. Bowen - W. Bowen - UNKNOWN Bowen - Benjamin Bradbury (c1846-1882) - Henry Bradbury (c1842-1917) - H. Bradley - W. C. Bradley - George Bray - William Bray - P. Brewer - - J. Brindle - William Brodie - J. Brooks - James Brooks (c1886-1904) - Daniel Brophy (1832-1895) - James Campbell Brown (1857-1936) - Wilfred Lionel Reed Brown (1889-1917) - William Alfred Brown (1860-1931) - UNKNOWN Brown - UNKNOWN Bryan - Francis Bulch (c1861-1886) - Thomas Edward Bulch (1863-1930) - A. Bull - J. Bull - William Campbell Burbidge (c1832-1908) - J. Burnett - A. Burns - F. Burns - G. Burns - H. Burns - Thomas Burns (c1839-1917) - W. Burns - UNKNOWN Burton
C
H. Cadd - William Black Cairncross (1859-1927) - George Cairns (1864-1900) - J. Cairns - Frederick Caldecoat (1856-1939) - John Caldwell (1863-1925) - Frederick Edward William Callaway (c1855-1935) - Samuel Thomas Cameron (1860-1891) - T. Cameron - W. Campbell - W. A. Cannon - W. Carmichael - David Carnegie (1857-1890) - William Henry Carpenter (1863-1930) - UNKNOWN Carrell - J. Carroll - H. Carson - John Carter - Richard Carter (c1814-1883) - W. Carter - John Carthew (c1850-1886) - UNKNOWN Cazaly - Alexander Chalmers (1859-1922) - H. Chappin - C. Charles - Edward Charnley - J. Chegwidden - Alexander Chisholm (1862-1929) - Robert Chisholm (c1858-1911) - Charles Chown (c1850-1923) - Andrew Clark (1858-1906) - C. Clark - J. Clark - James Clark - James Clarke - Charles Clay (c1822-1901) - W. Cleary - J. Clinton - Edward Chalmers Close (1852-1924) - Robert Maxwell Close (1857-1941) - W. Coburn - P. Coffey - John Amos Colley (1839-1920) - A. J. Collins - Henry Collins - J. Collins - Richard Collinson - Patrick Conaughton (1870-1937) - John Edwin Congress (c1827-1882) - Thomas Cook - D. Cooper - H. Cooper - S. Cooper - H. Coppin - Charles Gray Coundon (1858-1885) - A. Couper - Thomas Couper - J. Coward - W. Cowie - Joseph Edward Cowley (1847-1910) - Edward Thomas Cox (1851-1930) - T. Cox - R. Crank - T. R. Crewes - Andrew Hutchinson Croll (1839-1897) - George Croll (1837-1919) - William Cundy (c1830-1918) - S. Curphey - Thomas Curphey (1846-1940) - H. Cuss - T. Cuthbertson - D. Cutler (Phoenix Foundry)
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
George Macara (c1863-1936) - William Macara (1828-1909) - William Macara (1868-?) - D. Macaw - W. Mackay - Alexander Mackie (c1830-1918) - J. Mackie - William Maclean - Thomas James Maddaford (1868-1949) - William Snell Tandy Magee (1859-1889) - D. Main - H. C. Major - B. Mallison - Alexander Manderson (1851-1916) - William George Manners (1863-1924) - Michael Joseph Mannix (1881-1934) - Charles James Marquand (1872-1943) - W. Marsh - C. J. Marshman - D. Marshman - A. Martin - Alexander Martin - F. Martin - James Martin - Peter Martin (1863-1944) - T. Martin - Francis Mason - I. Mason - James Mason - W. Matthews - W. Mayall - E. McCarthy - UNKNOWN McCaw - J. McCulloch - D. McDermott - John Young McDonald (1837-1917) - UNKNOWN McDonnell - Edward Patrick McElroy (1873-?) - C. McGill - H. McGoe - A. McGregor - Donald McGregor (c1861-1956) - D. McIntosh - J. McIntosh - L. McIntosh - D. McIntyre - J. McKay - John McKenzie (c1817-1889) - R. McKenzie - W. McKimm - C. McLean - J. McLean - Lachlan McLean (?-1872) - J. McManamny - Patrick McManamy - A. McNair - R. McNair - A. McNaughton - James Blackmore McQuie (1830-1916) - Thomas Blair Meekison (1866-1942) - D. Meldrum - Francis Menzies (1864-1943) - James Menzies (1862-1945) - M. Mewley - W. Mewley - Ernest Henry Middleditch (1865-1948) - C. Middleton - Richard Greenwood Middleton (1851-1905) - W. Miles - G. Miller - J. Miller - J. Miller, Junior - James Miller (c1862-?) - Robert Miller (c1859-1896) - W. Miller - William John Millett (?-1946) - Solomon Mirls (1843-1889) - Benjamin Mitchell (c1874-?) - Ernest Mitchell (c1874-?) - John Mitchell - John Mobbe - Joseph C. Mobberley (1846-1923) - Joshua Mobberley (?-1913) - M. Modgin - UNKNOWN Moet - Edward Morey (1832-1907) - Charles Morgan (1852-?) - David James Morgan (c1829-1867)** - Robert Yolland Morgan (1868-1946) - Samuel John Morgan (1828-1909) - Samuel John Morgan (1856-1939) - Edward Morris - John Patrick Morris (1839-1898) - P. Morris - William Morris (1869-1922) - John Morrison - T. Morrison - W. G. Morrison - William Morrison - Hugh Wilson Morrow (1840-1911) - T. Morse - Francis Mossom (?-1900) - J. Mosson - James William Moxham (c1844-1938) - J. Muir - UNKNOWN Muir - C. Mullard - F. Muller - W. Mumbray - D. Munro - W. Murley - F. Murphy - Patrick Murphy (1863-1917) - William Francis Murphy (1875-1936) - John Murray - James Musgrove (c1851-1889)
N
O
P
Q
R
S
H. S. - H. Sainsbury - Henry Sampson - John Sanderson - W. Sansbury - G. Saunders - W. Saunders - James Scarff (1863-1933) - John Schaefer - G. Schnitzler - M. Schrader - Henry Scott - R. Scott - W. Scott - R. Semmel - Frank Blamire Sewell (1869-1905) - George Frederick Sewell (1864-?) - Richard Blamire Sewell (1837-1915) - Richard Charles Sewell (1862-1900) - A. Shand - John Shand (c1832-?) - Robert Shand (c1831-1877) - H. Shanks - J. Sharp - Annie Eliza Shaw (c1839-1932) - Edgar Hunter Shaw (1879-1975) - H. Shaw - James Cleeland Shaw (1862-1949) - James Smith Shaw (c1804-1872) - John Minnis Shaw (1871-1929) - William Henry Shaw (1830-1896) - William Henry Shaw (1865-1957) - John Sheldon - George Sheppard (c1863-?) - UNKNOWN Sheridan - Charles Siddall (c1863-?) - William Slee - G. S. Slighe - Adam Smith (c1825-1888) - E. Smith - G. Smith - James Smith (c1831-1877) - Thomas Smith - W. H. Smith - William Smith - William Collard Smith (1830-1894) - UNKNOWN Smith - Archibald Sneddon (c1852-1937) - Thomas Ernest Gladstone Sneddon (1884-1901) - William Sneddon (1849-1935) - William Sneddon (1879-1962) - E. Spence - David Cooper Spiers (1855-1925) - J. Stabb - A. Stanley - E. Statton - UNKNOWN Stebart - UNKNOWN Stephens - Frederick William Stephenson (1860-1937) - John Oliver Stephenson (c1825-1905) - G. Stevenson - William Stevenson (1847-1910) - C. Stewart - John Donald Stewart (1857-1932) - R. Stewart - R. Stockall - William Henry Stokeld (1859-1921) - John T. Stone (c1871-1930) - Thomas Stone - W. B. Stone - J. H. Sugden - Denis Sullivan - T. Sumanby - Pickles Sunderland (c1826-1902) - W. Symmonds
T
U
V
W
Y
Z

Legacies

See also

Australian Juvenile Industrial Exhibition

Foundries

Gong Gong Reservoir

Strike in the Shipping Trade in 1890


Recommended Reading

Resource list for Phoenix Foundry, Ballarat


Notes


J. G. Burnell wrote that the Phoenix Foundry was founded in 1856 by Carter, Bodycomb and Shaw (the manager at that time). In ‘Industrial Development.’ One Hundred Years of Engineering in Victoria, page 407. Yet William Bramwell Withers (a contemporary of the managers of the Phoenix Foundry) recorded in 1887 that the company was started by Messrs Carter, Oldham and Shaw - with Mr. W. H. Shaw as manager. In William Bramwell Withers. The History of Ballarat from the First Pastoral Settlement to the Present Time. Ballarat: F. W. Niven and Co., 1887, page 292. [Federation University Australia, Mt Helen Library].


References

  1. The Victorian Centenary Book, page 291.
  2. Graeme Cope, “Shaw, William Henry (1830—1896),” Australian Dictionary of Biography, accessed August 21, 2015.
  3. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 5 March 1857, page 2. Digital copy accessed via Trove.
  4. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Wednesday 15 April 1857, page 3. Digital copy accessed via Trove.
  5. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Monday 4 January 1858, page 3; The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Tuesday 5 January 1858, page 1; The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Wednesday 6 January 1858, page 1.
  6. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Friday 3 June 1864, page 2. Digital copy accessed via Trove.

One Hundred Years: Official Programme and History of Ballarat Centenary Celebrations, 1938.

External Links

Location Map: Google Maps

Peter Butters, 'Ballarat’s Phoenix Foundry built a great reputation'. The Courier. June 15, 2003. http://www.thecourier.com.au/news/local/news/general/ballarats-phoenix-foundry-built-a-great-reputation/408869.aspx

http://www.goldmuseum.com.au/ehive-object-details/371120/



--C.K.Gervasoni 14:29, 21 February 2011 (EST); --Beth Kicinski 13:44, 5 January 2012, 21 May 2012, 6 March 2013 (EST)
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