Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company
- Reports of rich gold discoveries in New South Wales and Victoria during 1851 following on from the California rush of 1849-50, raised the English investment market to fever pitch during 1852. The Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company was one of a large number of so-called 'gold bubble' companies formed in England at this time to exploit Australian gold deposits by large-scale company mining.
- Within a few years the Port Phillip Company was the only survivor of this episode of British corporate gold-fever. After a precarious early existence, the company's fortunes changed and it became a highly efficient gold producer at Clunes, some 30km north of Ballarat. During a thirty-year period the company produced over 0.5 million ounces of gold (the third most productive quartz reef mine in Victoria) and £225,000 in dividends.
- Key elements of the Port Phillip Company's corporate structure and its large-scale mining philosophy can be traced to a London-based Brazilian mining company, the St. John d'el Rey Mining Company ('St John Company'). The St John Company was in effect, the antecedent of the Port Phillip Company through the two companies' common founding directors. Several of the Port Phillip Company's senior staff had earlier worked at the Morro Velho mine of the St John Company. These highly skilled and motivated professionals brought their invaluable experience to the Port Phillip Company's operations at Clunes.
The Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company was founded in England during 1851-3. The mining company was reported to be one of numerous "gold bubble" companies formed in England with the purpose of mining gold in Australia. The managing director of The Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company, Rivett Henry Bland, in 1856 traveled to Clunes when the company acquired the knowledge that there was quartz lodes in the landscape.
Rivett Henry Bland when arriving at Clunes, found prolific quartz lodes in the land. As stated in the "History of Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company, in Connection with Clunes" he found the "favorable appearance of lodes on the surface" of the land and immediately set the task of establishing a lease agreement with one of the land owners Mr Macdonald. Conditions of the lease were that the lease would stand for a period of 21 years, however if Port Phillip and Colonial Mining Company chose to terminate the lease at any stage they could do that. The owners of the land received small royalties from the gold found.
Bland organised a party of miners into a company called The Clunes Quartz Mining Co. The role of this company was to extract the quartz, and deliver it to The Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company who crushed the quartz and extracted the gold. This agreement continued for some years until it was decided that Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company should manage all the work affiliated with the mine.
Notably, Clunes was Victoria's first gold town, the first place in Victoria where gold was struck. And the Port Phillip and Colonial Mining Company was the leading mining company for quartz mining and crushing for many years. All other English "gold bubble" companies folded within a year of coming to Australia. 
The mine was situated in the central part of the township of Clunes.
Activities in Ballarat
- In six months the company spent nearly £10,000 on building the two quartz-crushing plants and their associated infrastructure at Ballarat, and using its sixty-man workforce to carry out extensive mining operations.
- Operations at Ballarat and Creswick during 1856-7 could best be described as learning experiences, albeit expensive, at a cost of about £10,000. The company had undertaken quartz mining, constructed and operated two quartz-crushing plants, and invested in the mining operations of other parties. None of these particular ventures made a profit but the experience gained was invaluable and helped lay the foundations for the Port Phillip Company's remarkable successes over the next three decades.
January 26 The prospectus of the company appears in The Times in England, offering 150,000 shares at £1 each.
February 20 Evan Hopkins, the company's consulting mining engineer, accompanied by his son and a servant left England for Australia... travelling via the overland mail route to Suez, thence to Galle and Singapore.
February 27 The company is registered as a joint stock company.
April 6 The Augusta Schneider departs England with company officials and an number of Cornish miners hired by the company and their families, a total of 131 passengers, together with mining machinery, equipment and stores.
May 4 The Geelong departs Liverpool, "carrying amongst its passengers 28 Cumberland miners and their families under the supervision of an '...experienced mine agent.' The passenger list showed Henry Thomson (Engineer) and his wife Elizabeth among the cabin passengers."
August The company is granted a Royal Charter of Incorportation.
1852 to 1855
Victorian mining legislation did not cater for large companies. This, together with some soil science that worked in Brazil but not, as it turned out, in Australia, the company chose to stay away from quartz mining and concentrated on gold-buying, but with some alluvial gold and tin mining attempts at Castlemaine and Ovens. As for the Cornish miners that arrived as wage-earning employees, several deserted the company on arrival in Victoria. Those remaining were given employment at Castlemaine and Ovens for a time, but over the four-year period it seems that all were dismissed. But by 1855, quartz mining was becoming of greater interest and "late in 1855, Bland had realised that the trend towards quartz mining could provide just the opportunity that the company needed."
October Bland sends Henry Thompson to investigate the quartz reefs at Mount Blackwood where quartz-crushing machines had been operating for some time, charging diggers £6 per ton. Thompson later investigated quartz reefs at Mount Egerton, Steiglitz, and near Kilmore. Thompson's reports reinforced Bland's view that the company should set up a large, efficient quartz-crushing plant to treat ore being mined by others, particularly small parties with no capital or machinery. If the company could obtain a lease, and mine and crush on its own behalf, so much the better.
November Bland writes to the London directors "putting forward his proposal and urging them to act quickly to ship out the appropriate machinery if they wished to seize the opportunity."
Around November George Milner Stephen meets with the London directors of the Port Phillip Company, "who by then were receiving mounting criticism from the shareholders over the company's lack of progress after nearly four years. A barrister, geologist and mineralogist, Stephen had spent three years in Victoria during the early gold rushes and claimed to be familiar with legislative and mining matters there."
Early in the year Thompson's search for prospective quartz reefs continues, "with visits to both the Goulburn River district and Ballarat. With no response from London to his own quartz crushing proposal, Bland assembled a small plant from equipment already on hand. This was used to test promising quartz reefs on a small claim taken out at Black Hill, near the northern end of the Ballarat goldfield."
Early March Stephen arrives in Melbourne to set up and manage an ore treatment works. The Victorian Director of the company, Rivett Henry Bland was not impressed, and it appears Stephen's involvement with the Port Phillip Company came to an abrupt end.
Around May Joseph Robson is appointed to manage the Black Hill mining operation.
Late May The company begins mining on the Black Hill claim, "shortly afterwards pegging several more claims over a wide quartz reef in nearby Dead Horse Gully."
Early June Machinery costing £3,500 arrived in Melbourne... selected on 'the best advice' by the London directors in response to Bland's proposal of the previous November... Joseph Robson supervised the installation of the new machinery at Dead Horse Gully..."
June-July Even as the first machinery was being installed at Dead Horse Gully, Bland and Thompson were seeking still larger and richer quartz reefs. A rush to the quartz reefs at Clunes took place in June-July 1856 and the pair went to investigate. Bland was impressed by the number of quartz reefs in such a small area, and more so by their apparent richness. Diggers were mining ore carrying ten ounces of gold or more per ton from reefs on the north bank of Creswick Creek, treating it at crude public quartz-crushing machines situated along the creek. The richest part of the quartz reefs lay slightly further to the north however, within private land from which the diggers were barred. Here, after a search of four years, was the opportunity that Rivett Bland had been looking for. And the rest is history.
August 14 The Port Philip [sic] Gold Mining Company have a claim on a quartz reef about a quarter of a mile from the Prospectors' Hotel [at Dead Horse Gully], which promises to be remunerative. The reef, which crops out on the surface, was prospected some time ago, but abandoned, and the company have been in occupation about four months. Their agent there, Mr Robertson [sic], has had some thirty years experience in mining in Brazil, and was engaged in London for his present duties by the company. The company have over fifty men at work on the reef, and a powerful crushing machine is now being erected in the gully close to the Prospectors' Hotel, and which is expected to be at work in a month or two. From the reef to the machine is about 500 yards and the quartz will be conveyed along a tramway for crushing. We are informed the company calculate that two ounces to the ton will pay; and the "show" of gold in the quartz leads them to expect that much at least. We wish them success, and that many more may emulate their enterprise.
August 21 The Port Phillip Gold Mining Company have applied to the Local Court for a lease of the reef near the Prospector's Hotel, Dead Horse Gully, and the Court have directed an engineer to survey the reef and report thereon.
August 28 BLACK HILL.—In the Mopoke and other gullies round about the Black Hill there are a good many parties quietly working away. Dams, and puddling machines, and paddock of wash dirt here and there shows that this old ground is not yet exhausted. On the top of the Hill there is a little new surfacing going on and a few parties sinking for quartz. The Port Philip Gold Mining Company have some extensive workings here, under the management of Mr Robertson. Between the Mopoke and adjoining gullies they have four or five working on what we take to be a portion of the same reef as is being so extensively worked on Old Post Office Hill. This portion of their works was opened about two months since, and a heap of quartz is accumulating for crushing. The extent of ground here belonging to the company is only one man's claim, although four are engaged thereon. Under the Black Hill the company commenced to tunnel on two levels some four months ago, and considerable progress has been made: four men working by day and four by night. The lower level is about twenty feet above the level of the flat, and the next level about fifteen feet higher than the first. The main drive in the lower level is six feet high and three feet wide, 230 feet in length. Cross-drives here and there are entered, the largest of which is 80 feet in extent longitudinally. The main drive in the upper level is about 150 in length, and of singular dimensions to those in the lower level; cross drives are also set in here in several places. These shafts communicate with the surface and supply these winding, crypt-like subterranean pathways with fresh air. One of the shafts cuts the upper level continuous to the main tunnel, and down it all the quartz obtained on that level is thrown to the lower level, where tramways will be presently laid, on which horses will convey the quartz thence to the open air, and the crushing-machines about to be erected by the company on the creek side. These tunnels are all dry, and in the main nicely rounded at the top; the reef, however, which is slatey, caves here and there, and re quires timbering; the overseer, who cautiously conducted us through the labyrinthine ways, being congratulated by one of the miners when we were there upon having escaped an avalanche of some hundredweights of roof and wall which had fallen upon the spot he occupied but a few minutes previously. There has been no regular reef struck here yet; but veins or lodes of auriferous quartz are seen in all the tunnels, and varying from one inch to a foot in depth, and running mostly in a horizontal direction with dips to the north and east. These extensive works, manned by employees at a high rate of wages, and necessitating a large outlay of capital, are but prospecting operations in quest of the main reef; but they demonstrate how indispensable is the introduction of capital to the effectual development of our mineral wealth. The enterprising spirit of this company merits every legitimate encouragement, for in serving themselves they benefit others; their large expenditure yielding an income to a numerous body of miners, artisans, and others; and thus contributing to the general prosperity of the community. Last year at this time there were two quartz crushing machines in work here; but only one now remains, and that is about to be removed. Undaunted, however, by the failure of those two companies, the Port Philip Company have powerful engines on the way up from town, and they propose to set vigorously to work as soon as their plant is in readiness.
Late October Crushing commences at Dead Horse Gully.
Date uncertain A second treatment plant was erected shortly afterwards at Black Hill, crushing quartz mined from the company's claim as well as public crushing for diggers working in the nearby Mopoke Gully. Rees Davies, a Welsh mechanical engineer managed the plant, which had the added refinement of an amalgamating machine in its gold recovery section.
November 11 PORT PHILLIP GOLD MINING COMPANY, The following interesting account of the works of the Port Phillip Gold Mining Company at Dead Horse Gully, near Ballaarat, is taken from Saturday's Star : — Although for some considerable time past several men have been in the employment of the company, and at work upon the quartz reef, it is only very lately that the machinery, which is now in full operation, has been erected. The reef is situated about ten minutes' walk from the engine-house, which has been erected on an eminence at the back of the Prospector's Hotel. Upon this reef, at the present moment, there are men working for the company, under the superintendence of an overseer, at a certain rate of weekly wages. The extent of the claim is 162 feet long, and the quartz is of a red and white color. A shaft of 10 feet in depth has been sunk in the claim, in which two drives have been made, one of which has not been proceeded with to any great extent, on account of its being under an old shaft, and therefore not particularly safe to work in. The gold obtained from this claim is particularly fine, and therefore it is only by the perfection to which the company have brought their machinery, that their speculation in this locality is likely to be a successful one. We believe that it is the intention of the company to form a tram-road from the reef to the engine-house, which will render the conveyance of the quartz a much easier task than it is at present. On leaving the reef and approaching the engine house from the road by the Prospector's Hotel, the first object that strikes the eye is the reservoir formed by the company for the purpose of supplying the engine with water. This dam is 120 feet long by about 60 wide, and in depth is from 7 to 10 feet. Between this reservoir and a hydraulic pump, which is fixed in front of the engine-house, there is a communication. The pump is fixed in the ground at a depth of 15½ feet. The quartz-crushing machine is worked by an engine of 20-horso power, and is kept in operation from 8 o'clock on Monday morning until 11 o'clock on Saturday night, and is capable of crushing 20 tons a day. Although the machine commenced working on last Friday week for a few days, it did not continue to work regularly, but now, as we have before stated, it is steadily at work. It is provided with twelve stampers, each stamper striking seventy-four time per minute. It is a self-feeding machine, being fed by four hoppers and four troughs, the latter being placed on a spring, so that as the hopper strikes a blow the trough is moved and the quartz slowly brought into it from the place at the back of the machine, in which they are in the first place deposited. By this arrangement, the quartz of four different parties can be crushed at one and the same time. The machine has two amalgamating troughs, each of which has four divisions. Whilst viewing the machine our attention was drawn to a somewhat novel mode adopted for catching the gold before it passes into the amalgamating troughs, viz., by the use of a peculiar kind of blanket, which has been sent out from England expressly for this purpose. The down on the blanket used in connection with this machine is much longer than on the ordinary blanket. Some gold obtained by this agency was shewn us. With respect to the yield of gold obtained from the quartz in the locality of which we are now speaking we were informed that it averaged about 2 oz. to the ton, which amount would pay the company very well. At the rear of the engine-house, and situated on the top of the hill, is a kiln where the quartz is burned before it is crushed. We were given to understand that it was the intention of the company to crush quartz without burning them, in order that they may be in a position to judge which course is most likely to turn out successful with respect to the amount of gold yielded. At present the company are only crushing for themselves, but it is their intention immediately to crush for the miners at very reasonable charge. Close to the engine-house there is a small zinc building erected, which is used as a blacksmith's shop. Immediately behind this are two weatherboarded houses ; the one being a store, and the other the residence of the blacksmith and the engine fitter. The whole of these works are under the control of Mr Thomson, who is the resident manager, and Mr Robson is the chief engineer. The total number of men employed in this locality, including those who are working on the reef, is thirty-one. The company have also works established at the Black Hill under the management of Mr Davis.
December 4 PORT PHILLIP COMPANY. - Operations are progressing briskly at the works of this company, at Dead Horse Gully, and we are informed that the yield of gold continues satisfactory. At the Black hill the crushing apparatus has been standing still for the past few days, owing to some defect in the working of the rollers in the amalgamating pan. Other machinery is about to be erected, and the stamping battery of the apparatus already in gear will continue in use. The tunnellngs into the hill have been carried considerably further since our last visit; and on the lower level a temporary line of rails has been laid down for the conveyance outwards of the quartz obtained within. These drives run in every direction, and in some places the veins of quartz have been either worked out, or worked as far as they paid or were considered safe; and the chambers are now being filled filled up with sandstone and slate obtained in the usual course of working. A third level has been opened since we were here last. This tunnel is set off at a depth of fifty feet from the surface; a stage being erected in a shaft that cuts the other levels, and the drive opened from the stage. The company continue to work the reef on the Mopoke side, but none of the quartz raised there has yet been crushed. A consider able quantity, however, lies piled up ready for the engine-house; and as soon as the various machinery which the company in tend working, arrives and is erected, these hoards will be removed and submitted to the usual pulverising process.
December 18 The Port Phillip Company's works at Dead Horse Gully and Black Hill are still in active operation. The experiments made by the company have fully demonstrated the paying nature of the veins or reefs they have been prospecting; and we know that a much larger investment of capital would be made if more encouraging regulations were if force in respect thereto.
Late January The Black Hill (and Dead Horse Gully?) mills shut down "due to poor gold grades in the quartz reefs and a shortage of processing water caused by a drought."
February 5 Prospectus of the Clunes Quartz Mining Company.
BOARD OF MANAGEMENT:
Mr. Charles Kinear, Chairman and General Manager.
The Manager of the Port Phillip Gold Mining Company.
-- Osborn, Esq., Engineer and Metallurgist.
And three of the Working Shareholders, being Captains of working parties, and elected by the general body of Shareholders.
BANKERS . . . . . . . Bank of New South Wales.
SOLICITORS . . . . . . .
CONSULTING ENGINEERS . . . . . . .
SURGEON . . . . . . .
SHARE-BROKER . . . . . . .
THE CLUNES QUARTZ REEFS have obtained a world-wide celebrity for richness, quantity of material, and situation, combining the advantages of an abundant supply of water, with contiguity of timber.
Arrangements have been made with the landowners for the exclusive privilege of working this property, on paying ten per cent, of the gross yield of gold.
The Lessee is enabled to offer working shares in this undertaking to one hundred miners, and has contracted with the Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company, to set up an extensive plant of the very best machinery, for the purpose of calcining, crushing, and amalgamating the quartz at a fixed rate, namely, three pounds (£3) per ton. The Port Phillip Company further agreeing to melt, assay, and dispose of the gold to one of the Melbourne Banks at the highest current price, and place the amount to the credit of the Clunes Company, at their bankers; thereby securing the best prices and avoiding all charges after the quartz has been delivered at the kiln, except the charge for crushing, &c., &c., and the per centage due to the land owners.
It is believed that alluvial mining may be profitably carried out, to a considerable extent, and, in anticipation of this, it has been further arranged with the Port Phillip Company to provide and erect machinery for puddling and extracting the gold from the auriferous soil.
The Company will consist of one hundred and ten shares: one hundred of which will be working miners shares, subject to a charge of fifteen pounds per share, as follows:- Ten pound (£10) to be paid on registration of the share, and the remaining five pounds (£5) within one month, and ten free shares for the general management: to provide the services of a consulting engineer, or practical fore man of the works, and all clerical assistance necessary for conducting the general affairs of the company.
The fifteen hundred pounds (£1500) to be raised will be expended in preliminary expenses, and the cost of one set of the requisite mining tools, (after which all further supplies must be furnished by the Company,) erecting such buildings and fences as may be necessary, and enclosing the land as required by the conditions of the lease.
Medical attendance, as in so large a com pany accidents and sickness might be occasionally expected, notwithstanding all care be taken: it is deemed advisable to arrange with an experienced duly qualified surgeon to attend at all times when required, to be paid for his services out of the general funds.
Every facility will be given to the miners and their families, for settling comfortably on allotments of the Company's lease and paddock of one hundred and sixty acres, for which purpose a portion will be laid out as a town ship, and opened for selection according to priority of registration.
Rules and Regulations.
Rules and Regulations will be made to insure the efficient working of the Company, the perfect security of the gold, and the prompt and correct payment of dividends.
Early steps will be taken to bring this Association under the operation of the limited liability act.
Application for shares, according to ac companying form, to be made in writing to
MR CHARLES KINNEAR,
Bath's Hotel, Ballarat.
I hereby apply for one share in the Clunes Quartz Mining Company, and engage to comply with the conditions, rules and regulation, and sign the deed of settlement.
NAME . . . . . . . . .
RESIDENCE . . . . . . . . .
REFERENCE . . . . . . . . .
Late March Both plants at Ballarat were dismantled... and most of the machinery transported to Clunes.
April 10 The Port Phillip Company have broken up their establishment, and most of the plant and outbuildings are removed hence to the Clunes and Creswick.
Prior to August By way of comparison [with Rivett Bland], the appointment of Evelyn Ward Powles (either the chairman's son or another nephew) as a clerk in Victoria, was considerably less successful. Evelyn Powles worked for the company for about a year before returning to Britain. A letter from a critic of the company, published in London in 1857, implied that Evelyn Powles' inefficiency had cost the company over £4,500 in an unsuccessful mining venture at Ballarat.[Notes 1]
August 29 The "Port Phillip Mining Co" is included in a list of those donating money toward a "Church and Parsonage at Ballarat".
January 14 The Port Phillip Company previously had establishments at Dead Horse, but they have been given up.
April 5 At the Clunes matters continue to go on pretty much as usual The dividends have averaged about to £5 per man per week; an exceedingly respectable average as the times go. We hear that the Chilian mill once set up by the P. P. Company in connection with their Clunes contract has been put aside, as not working so satisfactorily as the stamping batteries. The excellent character of the reef is apparent in the fact that so good an average result has been obtained in the face of so many heavy deductions from the gross product before the dividends are made to the general shareholders. We hear that an opinion exists among some portion of the company that the apportionment for the P. P. contract and the owner of the ground is excessive; but this, however true, is now too late.
January 6 TENDERS wanted for the formation of dam, and other works, for the use of the Port Phillip, White Flat, Clunes United, and Criterion Quarts Mining Companies, Clunes. Plans and specifications may be seen at the office of the Port Phillip Co., Clunes.
September 5 CLUNES MINING INTELLIGENCE.
(From our own Correspondent.)
I am favored, through the medium of Mr James Stevenson, district mining registrar, with the following returns from his mining report, for the month of August, to which I have added some supplementary information in brackets:-
The Port Phillip Company crushed 2822 tons of quartz which yielded 1571 ozs 1 dwt 12 grs, showing an average per ton of 11 dwts, 3 grs. During the month a crushing machine, patented by Mr Appleton, has been tested by this company. It is the first of the kind ever made, and there appear to be some defects in the working model. The patentee will construct another, which will be submitted to a trial. It is impossible to say at present whether it will prove a workable machine or not. The Arastra answers well for some purposes, but its application to reducing quartz to the finest possible state, for the extraction of minute particles of gold, is still looked upon as an experiment, and the company decline to pronounce an opinion upon it at present, other than it may yet be made a practical working machine. After a thorough trial of wrought steel stampheads against the best white cast iron, the manager states that the former mentioned are better and cheaper. The steel heads wear equally, and are therefore more effectual in reducing the stone. They are now experimenting upon the exact quality of wrought steel which answers best. The hydraulic stone breaking machine is still used with great advantage. They now work five engines of a total of 117 horse power...
December 5 CLUNES MONTHLY MINING REPORT.
The Port Phillip Company crushed 3096 tons of quartz raised by the Clunes Company from a variety of depths, the greatest being 300 feet. The yield was 1596 oz 8 dwt of gold. The grinding mills are also yielding satisfactory results. The boilers for the new engine have arrived, and are being fixed in position. Attached to the boilers is a tubular heater, which causes a great saving in fuel, owing to steam being exhausted round the feed pipes contained within the heater, thus raising the temperature of the water to nearly boiling point previous to its conveyance into the boilers. The boilers are also supplied with a Gifford's injector. This is the first time either of these improvements have been used here. The amalgamating house is being enlarged in order to provide for the additional work caused by the new batteries. The arrangements for conveying water to the batteries- have been completed, and the machinery is expected to be ready for starting in about two weeks.
January 27 CLUNES WEEKLY MINING REPORT.
The Port Phillip Company crushed during the fortnight 1779 tons of quartz raised by the Clunes Company. The yield was 893 oz 3 dwt of gold, being an average of 10 dwt to the ton. The woodwork of the dam is finished, and the whole will be completed in about a week. The amalgamating barrels are fixed, and will be driven by a separate engine. A quantity of pyrites has been roasted and ground, and the machinery is acting satisfactorily. The Clunes Company has let the stripping and enlarging of the shaft at 17s per foot. Some of the tenders were as high as £6 per foot. The work will be commenced to day (Monday). The sinking of the winzes and stoping is being continued as usual. Two new multitubular boilers, similar to those belonging to the new engine of the Port Phillip Company, with the exception of the heaters, which would not answer on account of the water from the reefs containing a large per centage of saline matter, have been ordered of the Neath Abbey Company, Wales, in consequence of theboilers at present in use having become very leaky.
18 February The Port Phillip Company crushed 793 tons of quartz raised by the Clunes Company. The yield was 370 at 1 dwt, being an average of 9 dwt 8 gr to the ton..-The tramway from the new batteries to the amalgamating works is finished, and also 280 feet of landers for the discharge of tailings from the works into the creek. A jigging machine has been erected for the purpose of making experiments on the tailings, and wire gauze upon Captain Davies principle is now being tried upon on e of the strikes, in order to test Its comparative efficacy in saving fine gold. It is contemplated to lay down lines of rails from the stacks of firewood to the various furnaces, and run the wood in on tracks, thus doing away with the carting of it, and thereby rendering comparatively easy what in winter, from the boggy nature of the soil, was a very troublesome operation. A great deal of trouble and annoyance having been caused to the company through the shanks of the stamp heads made in England becoming loose in consequence of defective casting, orders for the manufacture of stamp heads were given to Carter and Co. of the Phoenix Foundry, Ballarat, and Enoch Chambers, of Melbourne, and those supplied by the above makers, are found to answer admirably.
May 12 NEWS AND NOTES.
The Clunes and Port Phillip Companies have come to an arrangement about the supply of quartz to the batteries, and sixty additional men have been, in consequence, put on at the works.
Rivett Henry Bland, manager (1852-1887)
- ↑ Woodland's reference is Mining Journal, vol.27, 8 August 1857, p.559. The fact that the year is 1857 suggests the unsuccessful mining venture could be the one at Black Hill.
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 Woodland, John George (2002). R. H. Bland and the Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company. La Trobe University School of Historical and European Studies.
- ↑ R.H. Bland, 1890, History of the Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company in Connection with the Clunes Mine, F.W. Niven & Co. General Printers.
- ↑ The Discovery of Gold at Clunes, Retreived from URL: http://www.ballarat.com/clunes/background_history.htm
- ↑ Mining. (1856, August 14). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 2. 
- ↑ Mining. (1856, August 21). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 2. 
- ↑ Mining. (1856, August 28). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 3. 
- ↑ PORT PHILLIP GOLD MINING COMPANY. (1856, November 11). The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), p. 5. 
- ↑ Mining. (1856, December 4). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 2. 
- ↑ Mining. (1856, December 18). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 2. 
- ↑ Advertising. (1857, February 5). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 3. 
- ↑ Mining. (1857, April 10). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. 1855-1864), p. 2.(accessed 20/8/2014)
- ↑ LIST of Subscriptions and Collections for the Church and Parsonage at Ballarat, from October, 1854, to July, 1857:-. (1857, August 29). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 3. 
- ↑ The Star. (1858, January 14). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 2. Retrieved February 28, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66046114
- ↑ Mining. (1858, April 5). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 2. 
- ↑ Advertising. (1859, January 6). The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), p. 3. 
- ↑ The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Friday 5 September 1862, page 4.
- ↑ The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Saturday 5 December 1863, page 1.
- ↑ The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Wednesday 27 January 1864, page 3.
- ↑ The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 18 February 1864, page 4.
- ↑ The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 12 May 1864, page 2.
--Lyndel Ward 16:21, 20 December 2011 (EST)
--Beth Kicinski 14:13, 2 February 2012 (EST)
--Neil Huybregts 14:14, 16 January 2015 (EST)