Soho Foundry, Ballarat

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Caption, Reference.

Contents

Background

History

The Soho Foundry in Ballarat was established around about 1856 by Robinson, Thomas & Co. and stood on the southeast corner of Eyre Street and Errard Street


The Soho Foundry (or Works) occupied the corner of Eyre and Errard Streets; best information states that it was established in October 1860, but founding operations did not commence until about mid-1861.


In our article on the Soho Works, we erroneously stated the firm to be Messrs Robertson, Thomas and Co., instead of Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. In the article of the Victoria Foundry, typographical errors make us to say that Messrs Hunt and Opie have turned out from £1000 to £1500 worth of patent iron frames for stamping machines since the granting of the patent, instead of £10,000 to £15,000 worth. In like manner, in speaking of the diameters capable of being made by the boring machine, the article states them at from a quarter of an inch to six inches, instead of from a quarter of an inch to 16 inches. With these necessary alterations, we conclude the fourth article of our series.[1]


The earliest description available is found in the Ballarat Star, in December 1861. It reveals that the Soho Works was a large complex of wooden-walled, corrugated iron-roofed buildings which covered at least 8000 square feet. It employed abut 80 men, and manufactured screws, revolving stampers, stamper boxes, pipes, columns, engine cylinders, gas retorts, pumping gear, and cog and gear wheels.


The rest of the foundry consisted of a litter of moulding boxes, and “a stove for drying the cores of pipes and pumping gear, with the necessary railway and truck.” Adjoining all this were the brass furnaces and brass fitting shop, with a 30 feet high brick stack chimney. The engine furnace stack was 54 feet high, and the large cupola furnace was capable of turning out 4 tons 10 cwt at a time, with a smaller one for castings turning out 25 cwt.


At the Eyre Street end of the complex there was a store containing patterns of cog and gear wheels, and adjoining this was a pattern shop which housed four benches for five working men.


It is obvious from this description that the Soho Works was involved in heavy industry on Ballarat, and certainly existed to supply the growing demand for repair facilities to service the machinery coming into use on the Ballarat gold field from the mid-1850s. It is also clear that by 1861 the Soho Works was involved in casting metal objects, and manufacturing heavy machinery.


The wonderful Ballarat Star description of the Soho Works identifies that the foundry was busily employed in 1861 completing a large order for a 68 head revolving battery for the Black Hill Gold Mining Company. They were also contracted to produce a self-acting pumping engine for the New Band of Hope Company, and had just completed some retorts for the Gas Company, and a 9 feet sheave for the Buninyong Gold Mining Company.


THE BLACKHILL COMPANY AND THE SOHO FOUNDRY.
SIR.-The vindictive attack upon me in yesterday’s Star by Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. compels me to ask space in your next issue for a reply.
Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co.’s assertion that they have performed their contract properly, and that these works have not been delayed through their negligence and inability to execute the contract with the Black Hill Company, is a gross misstatement. In proof thereof, the whole of the machinery should have been delivered on or before the 18th November, six weeks since, under a penalty of £10 per day, in addition to other penalties for certain portions of the work agreed upon to be delivered at stated intervals. One half of the discs, together with some of the castings and several other portions of the work have not been delivered to the present time.
Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. would make it appear that the pipes in connection with the pump gave way through the pressure, but this was not the case – the only pressure possible is 22 lbs per square inch, and the pipes, if sound, are capable of standing a pressure of 200 lbs per square inch. It was not the pipes that gave way, but the putty, of which there was a large quantity supplied.
With reference to the design of the pump, and which they say is wrong, permit me to state it is no experiment, for I have erected pumps similar in every way, that have been in successful operation the last seven years.
I shall not notice any further effusions from them.
I am, Sir, Yours, &c.
JOHN S. MARTIN.
31st December.
[We publish the above letter as our correspondent is entitled to reply to the charges made against him, but the matter seems one that will be better argued in a court of law than in our columns.][2]
At the sale of Crown lands in Ballarat, held at the District Survey office on Thursday, the lots sold included the sites of the Turkish Baths and of the foundry of Messrs Robinson and Thomas.[3]
TENDERS wanted for the supply of Charcoal and Engine Wood for the Soho Works, Eyre street.[4]
NEWS AND NOTES.
In the Warden's Court on Monday, the proprietors of the Soho Foundry summoned the proprietors of the Victoria Foundry to show cause why the plaintiffs should not be put in possession of certain Crown lands at Mount Pleasant. It appears that the land in question is profitable to the parties, as supplying them with a particular kind of sand or loam used in making moulds for casting. The defendants held a license to remove sand or loam, and the plaintiffs did not, but as the land was not a reserve, the Warden ruled that there was no objection to the plaintiffs being registered for residence areas as applied for. Notice of appeal was given, and the Warden consented to hold over his order.[5]
WARDEN’S COURT.
Monday, 28th September.
(Before the Resident Warden.)
Robinson and Thomas v Hunt and Opie. Mr Trench for the plaintiffs, Mr Randall for the defendants. This was an application by the proprietors of the Soho Foundry to be put in possession of certain land at Mount Pleasant, alleged to be held in excess by the defendants, the proprietors of the Victoria Foundry, who held a Crown lands' license to remove sand or loam from the ground in question. The evidence of the plaintiffs showed that they had applied to be registered for a residence area there, but the defendants had lodged objections thereto, and in the mean time bad themselves applied for registration while holding the ground. Mr Randall contended that the application by the plaintiffs was only a ruse to deprive the defendants of their rights under their license, and that the Warden would not sanction such an application. Moreover the land was about to be sold. Mr Trench replied that his clients had as good a right to buy as the defendants, who held 80 perches of land there, Mr Randall handed in four miner's rights, which he said covered the whole area held by the defendants. Mr Trench objected to the tender of the miner's rights, and the application by the defendants' agent, Mr Chaffers, for a residence area, under cover of the license to remove loam. Mr Randall said his clients had nothing to do with Mr Chaffers, who acted for the Phoenix Foundry Company. His Worship found that the plaintiffs were entitled to have the land applied for, and be ad judged accordingly. Mr Randall gave notice of appeal, and the Warden said his order would be stayed for the usual period.[6]
NEWS AND NOTES.
The little feud between the foundry proprietors touching the right to the removal of sand from Crown lands at Mount Pleasant has been healed, the proprietors of the foundries having agreed to buy the land and use it between them.[7]
MINING INTELLIGENCE.
There is scarcely a quartz miner or speculator in the colony who has not beard of the once much promising great Monte Christo Company on Little Bendigo, with several large Melbourne capitalists as shareholders and a Melbourne manager for some time. Between £20,000 and £30,000 is said to have been expended on the mine with very unsatisfactory results, because badly managed. The company broke up and the lease was sold by Mr Sichel and another some time ago. It fell into the hands of Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co., of the Soho Foundry, who in turn disposed of it to the Temperance Company. The latter disposed of ten acres, or rather the lease, to Messrs Dowlin and Eastwood for about £150, and the result has been that the last named purchasers, for a fortnight's work, divided £95 per man after paying all expenses, including that of crushing at the Hero Company's claim. On Saturday the men engaged by the fortunate purchasers struck a very rich leader twelve inches in width within two and a half feet of the surface from which some of the richest specimens ever seen in Ballarat were taken. Some of the debris was washed in a dish, and the result was two ounces of coarse gold. The tidiness of the stone induced the owners of the claim to set men to watch it on Saturday and Sunday night. Other portions of the claim that have been tested have turned out stone of an excellent quality, but not nearly so good as that which was shown us on Saturday evening.[8]
What may happen to a man who does not read the newspapers, or that lively periodical the Government Gazette, nor study the interesting debates of the Mining Board, was illustrated in a complaint brought before the Mining Board on Thursday, by Mr Thomas, one of the proprietors of the Soho ironworks, in this town. Ironfounders require for their trade a certain kind of sand, used in castings, and at Mount Pleasant there is a deposit of excellent sand, much sought after for the purpose in question, and to secure a supply of it Mr Thomas, and other founders, some time ago, took up, registered, fenced, and otherwise improved areas there, under the residence area regulations. While Mr Thomas slept, his more wakeful business antagonists applied to have his area sold, got it reported on by the mining surveyor, the Mining Board adopted the surveyor’s report in favour of sale, and Mr Shaw, of the Phoenix Foundry, bought the area for £8, Mr Thomas, not being disturbed in his tranquil sense of safe possession until the purchaser served him with notice to quit and give up possession. Our Mining Board report gives further particulars of the affair, which has been held over by the Board for inquiry.[9]
MINING BOARD.
Thursday, 2nd June … CORRESPONDENCE.
20. From Jacob Thomas (Soho Works), Eyre street, complaining of having been “deprived of a residence area and improvements in a very extraordinary manner.” The letter set forth that, having, in September 1863, put a house and fencing on his registered lot 1, section 113, Mount Pleasant, and let the same to a tenant, “one William Shaw,” in March 1864, caused the land to be put up for sale, and “a Mr H. Walker, of the Survey Office,” recommended the same for sale. The sale was effected without any valuation for improvements – Shaw becoming the purchaser for £8; and the first notice complainant had of the sale or application for sale was a notice by the purchaser to give up possession. Complainant had therefore laid the case before the Board of Land and Works, and now before the Mining Board, praying for justice.
Members agreed that, as stated, the case was a very hard one.
Mr Eddy said the place was the only place where sand for founding purposes could be obtained, the purchaser being one of the Phoenix Foundry proprietors.
After some discussion, the matter was made an order of the day, that enquiry might be made as to whether or not the land had been reported on in the usual way.[10]

Site

THE INDUSTRIES OF BALLARAT.
OUR FOUNDRIES.
The premises occupied by Messrs Robertson, Thomas & Co, as iron and brass works, occupy a corner formed by the intersection of Eyre and Errard streets, presenting to the latter a frontage of 145 feet, and to the former one of 112 feet. The buildings, which were erected in October, 1860, describe two sides of a square; the residence of Mr Thomas, the office, the pattern shops, stores, stable, and large open yard, occupying the rest of the ground towards Eyre street. The establishment at large is designated the Soho Works, we need not say in imitation, or rather perhaps emulation, of the great shops erected near Birmingham by Boulton and Watt. The Soho Works of Ballarat, however, demand our present attention, and possibly a record of their actual condition may be read with interest at a time when the general advancement of Victorian manufactures and enterprise shall have acquired for them a magnitude and reputation somewhat more commensurate with their great prototype and namesake. Though the works were only established in 1860, and founding operations were not, commenced more titan six months ago, the Soho Works have acquired an excellent footing, and afford constant employment for an average of eighty hands, while the shops are planned on so extensive a scale, that when occasion requires there will be found room and verge enough to accommodate thrice that number. The buildings are all substantially formed of wood, with walls rising to a height of 16 feet, spanned by roofs of good pitch covered with iron, and at every gable provided with louvres for the purposes of ventilation.
Entering the fitting shop by means of the office, we find ourselves in a spacious and airy chamber, 28 feet by 53 feet, with ample provision for lighting and exit to Errard street. Overhead we notice an infinite number of wheels and "belts, put in motion by the driving shaft, which receives its impetus from an 8 horse power horizontal engine, occupying a place at the south end of the building. The engine, in fact, by means of shafting and belting, puts into action every article of machinery in the establishment. At the north end is a bench fitted with four vyces. Near this is a small self-acting screw-cutting lathe, with a 14 feet bed, and a planing machine capable of taking in 3 feet, and planing to the extent of 9 feet. Adjoining these is a self-acting drilling machine, fitted to bore any object to the depth of 1 foot 6 inches. Next we have a screwing machine of beautiful workmanship, and capable of forming screws from a quarter of an inch to an inch and a quarter. Close by, we noticed a number of shanks for revolving stampers now in course of manufacture for the Black Hill Company. On these the screw is 15 inches long to receive the disk. Towards the middle of tbs shop we note a self-acting lathe 23 feet in length, with 18in. centres. Opposite this is another self-acting screw-cutting lathe, of 12 feet in the bed and 13in. centres; as also one 12 feet long, used in brass work. Leaving the engine to the left, we pass through into the smithy, an apartment of 45 feet by 42 feet. Here we noticed a very powerful punching machine, capable of punching an inch and shearing an inch in thickness. Placed at suitable distances are three iron built forges, each supplied with a blast, and also fitted with bellows for emergencies, or for use when the engine is at rest.
Occupying the south side of the allotment, and standing at right angles with the shops just described, is the foundry, a spacious and roomy apartment, having free communication from the smithy, 113 feet in length by 42 feet in width. This is covered by five roofs, each of 22 feet 6 inches span. The truss-beam is 42 feet in span, and the construction of the whole on the same principle as that adopted in the Sydenham Palace. Lying on the sandy floor of the foundry we noticed a stamper box for the Black Hill Company, one of eight which have already been turned out of the moulds, of an order of twelve. The casting weighs 35 cwt, and is in height 3 feet 9 inches, by 5 feet 1 inch in length, and 18 inches in width. The travelling crane it not in this, as in other foundries we have visited, erected on an elevated staging, but, by means of a crab, traverses fore and aft upon rails placed on a stone wall two feet in thickness, and bedded four feet deep in the soil. By this means the motion of the crane is perfectly steady, and relieves the roof of all strain. The crane, which is fully rigged with blocks, commands every portion of the foundry, and is calculated to raise 20 tons or upwards. In one corner of the building are noticed a pile of patterns of pipes and columns, as also of 18 in., 14 in., and 10 in cylinders for engines. Here we may state that the proprietors of the Soho Works became possessors by purchase of all the patterns of Mr Croll's foundry in Geelong. As is usual in these places, moulders' box» strew the ground in every direction. Towards the eastern end of the building is a pit 16 feet in depth, for the purpose of casting gas retorts on end. Adjoining this is another pit containing a mould for a stamper box, just about to receive the molten metal. To the left of this is the stove for drying the cores of pipes and pumping gear, with the necessary railway and truck. Adjoining this are the brass furnaces, and brass fitting shop. The furnace at this place is supplied with a brick stack 30 feet in height. The stack attached to the engine furnace is 54 feet in height. Near the drying stove is the large cupola, capable of turning out 4 tons 10 cwt at a time, and a smaller one for castings of 25 cwt and less. These are fed by a fan blast attached to the engine.
The yard is strewed with patterns of machinery, iron in a raw state, heaps of moulder's boxes, scales, and other less describable matters connected with the works. As we proceed towards Eyre street, we enter a store solely containing patterns of cog and gear wheels suitable for engines from 6 horse up to 40 horse power; as also wheels up to eight feet in diameter. In the pattern shop adjoining are four benches with five men at work. The shelves are crammed roll of patterns of smaller castings. A pattern-maker's lathe is in the course of construction, and will shortly be completed.
We have thus conveyed our readers through the Soho Works, and pointed out the most noteworthy objects. In conclusion, we may be permitted to add a few memoranda of a business character. The firm, as we have already hinted, are busily engaged in completing a large order for a battery for the Black Hill Company. The battery is to be of sixty-eight heads, and revolving. They have also taken a contract for the self-acting pumping engine for the New Band of Hope Company. They have just finished a lot of fine retorts for the Gas Company, each being 2 tons 10 cwt in weight. The firm have also just completed a nine feet sheave for the Buninyong Gold Mining Company, stamper heads for the Burra Burra Company, SB also the Imperial and New Standard companies, at Hiscock's. They have also provided some stamps for the One and All Company at Little Bendigo, and the Union Company, Golden Point, besides many other smaller works.
We thus conclude our third notice of the foundries of Ballarat, and shall return to our grateful task at an early opportunity. [11]
In our article on the Soho Works, we erroneously stated the firm to be Messrs Robertson, Thomas and Co., instead of Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. In the article on the Victoria Foundry, typographical errors make us to say that Messrs Hunt and Opie have turned out from £1000 to £1500 worth of patent iron frames for stamping machines since the granting of the patent, instead of £10,000 to £15,000 worth. In like manner, in speaking of the diameters capable of being made by the boring machine, the article states them at from a quarter of an inch to six inches, instead of from a quarter of an inch to 16 inches. With these necessary alterations, we conclude the fourth article of our series.[12]
MINING BOARD
Wednesday, 7th January.
(Present – The full Board.)…CORRESPONDENCE.
9. From Mr Surveyor Davidson, reporting that the sale of the land occupied by the proprietors of the Soho foundry, at the corner of Eyre and Errard streets would not interfere with mining.[13]


Innovations

Community Involvement

Works Produced

Locomotives

NEWS AND NOTES.
A piece of gratifying intelligence reached us on Thursday evening, to the effect that the Hon. J. G. Francis, as agent for the Government of the Province of Southland,N Zealand, had accepted on its behalf, the tender of Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Company, of the Soho Works, Ballarat, for the locomotive engines required for the Invercargill Railway. Mr Davies, the contractor for the line under Government, was the engineer for the contractors for the Geelong and Ballarat line, and the designer of the locomotive “Lady Barkly," built by Messrs Hunt and Opie, of the Victoria Foundry, Ballarat, under the superintendence of Mr Errington, now manager for Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. These locomotives will be built on Mr Davis' principle, under the superintendence of Mr Errington; who has prepared the drawings in accordance there with. The engines are to be delivered on shipboard at Geelong for despatch to New Zealand. Mr John Woods, M.L.A. for Crowlands, acts as the agent in Victoria for Mr Davies for the satisfactory prosecution of the work; but as Mr Errington, aided by the appliances of the Soho Works, brings to the task long experience in the Stephenson school of locomotive engine-building, it may naturally be concluded that the firm will not fail to give the fullest satisfaction. In conclusion, it is obvious that we must congratulate Ballarat on the fact of one of her extensive iron works having obtained this important and suggestive contract when both Melbourne and Sydney had failed to do so. We hail the fact as an indication of a new branch of business having gained a good start with this active and advancing inland community, which our iron-working firms will not fail to seize, and by well-earned reputation permanently retain.[14]
LOCOMOTIVES FOR NEW ZEALAND.
Among the Ballarat foundries the Soho Iron Works, at the corner of Eyre and Errard streets, belonging to Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co., are the most notable just now, as exemplifying the success of local enterprise in that special department of industry. This prominence is due to a contract taken by that firm for the manufacture of locomotives for the Southland Railway, in New Zealand. The locomotives to be employed on that railway are Davies’ patent angle guide-wheel engines, the line in question being of wood, and Mr Davies being engineer and contractor for the line as well as patentee of the locomotives to be used on the line. Our readers will remember that the first engine made under this patent was manufactured some year or two ago, at Messrs Hunt and Opie's Victoria Foundry, Ballarat, and some successful trial trips were made with the locomotive on a short experimental line constructed by Mr Davies at his then temporary residence at the Green Hills, when engineer in chief for the contractors for the Ballarat and Geelong Railway. Mr Errington, who was then foreman at the Victoria Foundry and had the superintendence of the manufacture of the "Lady Barkly," as the experimental engine was called, is now superintendent of the Soho Works, and this, we presume, had something to do with the selection of the tenders sent in for the construction of the locomotives for the Southland Railway. This gentleman has had charge of the working out of the contract, and he prepared the drawings necessary to the work, the specifications being supplied by the patentee, whose local inspecting engineer is Mr Woods, M.L.A. for Crowlands. The Soho Works are extensive, and appear to comprise all the conveniences required in the execution of the largest contracts and the most elaborate machinery. The works occupy over half an acre of ground, and the plant includes the usual items of machinery such as a steam engine for driving blasts, lathes, drills, planes, punches, shears, and so forth, furnaces for melting iron and other metals, and all the infinite variety of things which we cannot pretend to be able to name, even if our space would allow of the enumeration. There is a two-story bride building apart from the rest of the works, devoted exclusively to the manufacture and storage of patterns used in the moulding houses. This building measures 60 feet by 40 feet, the other buildings being simply wide stretching sheds, while offices for the clerks and proprietors occupy a separate corner of the premises. Besides the ordinary iron moulding apparatus there is a furnace for brass moulding, and in that department some of the nicest portions of the locomotive works are constructed in the rough, and then, like all the other castings, passed through the regular gamut of drills, lathes, and other machines utterly inscrutable to the uninitiated. One of the novelties of the establishment is a Rigby's patent hammer, which is said to be an improvement on the Nasmyth, and has a blow of 15 cwt. power. This was working when we visited the foundry on Friday, and there are few things in the way of steam power which more completely show the remarkable combination of force with delicacy of action and completeness of control which distinguishes the marvels of modern invention in this way. From an annihilating blow of 15 cwt. power to the gentlest and politest tap imaginable, this obedient and we had almost said intelligent thing, possesses a range of endless diversity according to the requirements of the operator. When we bare added that the whole place is strewed with iron in every conceivable form from rough pig to polished steel, and that all the costly apparatus we have rather hinted at than 'described, is kept going by incessantly belching furnaces, puffing engines, and some ninety men and boys whose weekly wages amount to between £200 and £300, it will be easy to infer that the making of locomotives for the New Zealand Railway is a possible thing in Ballarat as it most certainly is a pleasing demonstration of the progress of the town in that particular department of industry. The contract taken by Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. is for the supply of two locomotives with tenders complete, the cost of which will be a little more than half the cost of the locomotives imported for the Victorian Railways. Of course there is a vast difference in the power and details of the two classes of engines, though the general principle of construction must, we presume, be identical. As being constructed for a wooden railway, the Davies' Patent is a special adaptation, the angle wheels preventing the friction and wearing away of the rail edges which would be inseparable from the ordinary flanged wheel. Then as having an outside cylinder the eccentric and valve gear is necessarily differently arranged, and is made to work from the outside in the Davies' Patent. With regard to this particular contract, we may state that the engines are made for a line-guage of 4 feet 8 ½ inches, or the narrow guage measure of the English lines. Each engine is of 60 horse power, or to speak by the card has a 10 ½ inch cylinder with a 24 inch stroke, the weight, exclusive of the tender, being about 13 tons. The difference between such an engine and the locomotive of the Victorian railways will be obvious when we state that the latter weighs from 22 to 26 tons, and has 100 horse power. Then there is much less bright work and ornamentation generally about the local engines than the much more costly ones imported for the Victorian lines, though we suppose that the skill and enterprise which are competent to the execution of the less would be adequate to grapple with the manufacture of the greater and more imposing engine. The dimensions of the engines now being constructed for New Zealand are 22 feet by 8 feet on foot, the plate wheels being of 4 ½ feet diameter, and the leading as well as the tender wheels of 34 feet diameter, that of the angle or guide wheels being 2 ½ feet. The whole of the castings, both of brass and iron, are done on the premises, with the exception of small things of Birmingham make, such as lubricators, whistles, and valves, which it would not pay to cast here. Low Moor iron is used in the construction of the engines, boilers, and fire boxes, and the tires of the wheels are made from 6x2 inch bar iron, welded by the Rigby hammer in 14 feet lengths, and then joined by the same process. The boilers are to work up to a pressure of 150 lb to the inch, and to bear a pressure of 200 lb. One of the engines is now all but completed, and the boiler has been tested by hydraulic pressure up to 200 lb, an experimental “get up" of steam having been made also a day or two ago to test the general working of the gear. But there will shortly be a more formal trial in this way, and we are informed that the one engine end tender will be ready for despatch within a week or ten days hence. The contract is for delivery In Melbourne, and one of the Soho employees will be sent over to New Zealand to superintend the erection of the engines there and to put them fairly in gear on the line. Whatever may be the merits of the doctrine of protection to native industry, there can be no doubt about the propriety of legitimate encouragement to that sort of industry, and of course the whole principle is involved in the question of what is legitimate encouragement. We believe that local manufacturers are prepared, on terms, to undertake the construction of the more ambitious class of locomotives, and to cope with the constructors of the magnificent engines which run on the Government lines. The proprietors of the Soho Works, for instance, say they would undertake to make locomotives similar to those on the Government railways, and to run them for a thousand mites before payment, provided-and there is of course the rub-advances were made, and a price-margin conceded to meet the higher wages and other differences in the circumstances of the colonial manufacturer. This, however, is by the way. The actual work now being turned out at the Soho Foundry is a gratifying instance of the advance of the locality in manufacturing enterprise; and the credit is one which has also the substantial accompaniment of great commercial good to the town in the shape of locally spent wages, while it is at the same time a sign of the gradual consolidation of urban interests and forces in this the centre of a large and populous and naturally wealthy district.[15]
LOCOMOTIVES FOR NEW ZEALAND.
SOHO WORKS.
One of the locomotives for the Southern [illegible] having been finished ready for transmission to the seaboard, there was a formal getting up of steam on Saturday last, by way of trial of the new engine. Considerable interest has been felt in this manufacturing experiment, and its success appears to be complete. On Saturday the Soho Foundry was decked out with flags flying at almost every gate and soon after noon there had gathered a large number of the leading men of the town to witness the working of the engine. Amongst the number present was Mr Woods, M.L.A. for Crowlands, who as the agent and inspecting engineer for the patentee, has been assiduous in his attention to the progress of the manufacture, and whose verdict on the result is one of entire approval. Mr R. L[illegible] M.L.A., was also present, and it had been expected that the Commissioner of Railways would be there, as also several other metropolitan notables, but from some cause they were absent. Messrs Trahar and Errington represented the manufacturing firm, the latter gentleman having had the carrying out of the whole business in its practical details [illegible] inspection, as we have intimated, of Mr Woods, the agent for the patentee. As we so recently gave a notice of the work done and to be done, we will now only add that the engine in it finished form is a very smart affair, and looks even to the uninitiated [illegible] thoroughly orthodox locomotive, not lacking even the outside glitter of shining brass and iron and the gay coloring of new paint. Steam was got up early in the day and the engine performed with admirable obedience to orders, [illegible] by Mr Errington and his side through the local media of a crank here, a chuck there, a valve [illegible] a screw somewhere else, and what other [illegible] of communication are known to the [illegible] iron horses in general. The foundry seemed full of onlookers who saw wheels revolving, pistons [illegible] darting to and fro, steam blowing off, hot water squirting out, and seemed to look on as if thoroughly appreciating the whole event. When those men immediately assisting in the ceremony had [illegible] themselves of the success of the manufacture the company repaired to a well-furnished luncheon.
Mr Lewis, M.L.A., for Ballarat West, proposed “The health of the proprietors of the Soho Works” whom he congratulated on the enterprise which had led to the experiment and on the gratifying success which had attended the undertaking. In [illegible] upon the importance of the experiment as bearing on local manufactures, he mentioned a conversation he had had with the Commissioner of Railways, who had said the Government would no doubt be prepared to invite tenders, from local firms, for the supply of locomotives for the Victorian lines if the supply could be had at rates not too much in excess of English prices.
Mr Thomas, of Robinson, Thomas, and Co., replied to the toast, and in the course of his remarks said his firm would be prepared to turn out as many locomotives as might be required, and at from £300 to £500 in advance of home prices.
Mr W. C. Smith proposed “The Southland Government and railway” and coupled therewith an eulogy of the patentee, Mr Davies, who, as a late resident in Ballarat, had won the esteem of those acquainted with him. He was glad to see local enterprise succeeding in the supply of locomotives for New Zealand, and had no doubt that Ballarat enterprise was quite equal to even more ambitious undertaking still.
Mr Woods, M.L.A., in acknowledging the toast, complimented the Soho proprietary on the way in which the work had been executed, and expressed his confidence in the feasibility of a local supply of any plant that might be required for our railways, the execution of the present work having justified the selection made in choosing Ballarat and the Soho Foundry, as the place where the contract should be carried out.
This closed the ceremonial part of the business, and such of the visitors as liked having regaled themselves at luncheon, the company broke up. We may add that in reference to the Southland railway that its total length, as at present contemplated by the Southland Government, is to be 80 miles, of which some 36 miles have already been completed. The line is of wood, the rails being 8-inches square scantling. As illustrating the working of Davies’ patent angle-wheel engines on wood rails, we may state, on the information of Mr Woods, that the “Lady Barkly” locomotive, manufactured by Messrs Hunt and Opie, of the Victoria Foundry, Ballarat, is now in Southland, and has had a good trial there on the contractors’ ballast line. That locomotive has run 19,200 miles on that line, drawing each trip from 30 to 40 tons of bluestone ballast, and yet we are informed that the new marks are not worn off the rails. When it is considered that each rail can be turned four times, the statement just given as to the inappreciable friction on the rails speaks a good deal alike for the utility of such rails, and the remarkable apparent adaptation of the Davies locomotive to that kind of way. We need hardly say that we add our congratulations to those of the visitors at the Soho Works on Saturday, and that we trust this manufacturing experiment may prove to be but the earnest of other and larger successes in promotion of local enterprise and progress.[16]
SOCIAL.
Among the Ballarat foundries the Soho Iron Works, at the corner of Eyre and Errard streets, belonging to Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co., are the most notable just now, as exemplifying the success of local enterprise in that special department of industry. This prominence is due to a contract taken by that firm for the manufacture of locomotives for the Southland Railway, in New Zealand. The locomotives to be employed on that railway are Davies' patent angle guide-wheel engines, the line in question being of wood, and Mr Davies being engineer and contractor for the line as well as patentee of the locomotives to be used on the line. The first engine made under this patent was manufactured some year or two ago, at Messrs Hunt and Opie's Victoria Foundry, Ballarat, and some successful trial trips were made with the locomotive on a short experimental line constructed by Mr Davies at his then temporary residence at the Green Hill, when engineer in chief for the contractors for the Ballarat and Geelong Railway. Mr William Errington, who was then foreman at the Victoria Foundry, and had the superintendence of the manufacture of the "Lady Barkly," as the experimental engine was called, is now superintendent of the Soho Works and this had something to do with the selection of the tenders sent in for the construction of the locomotives for the Southland Railway. This gentleman has had charge of the working out of the contract, and he prepared the drawings necessary to the work, the specifications being supplied by the patentee, whose local inspecting engineer is Mr Woods, M.L.A. for Crowlands. The contract taken by Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. is for the supply of two locomotives with tenders complete, the cost of which will be a little more than half the cost of the locomotives imported for the Victorian Railways. Of course there is a vast difference in the power and details of the two classes of engines, though the general principle of construction must, we presume, be identical. As being constructed for a wooden railway, the Davies' Patent is a special adaptation, the angle wheels preventing the friction and wearing away of the rail edges which would be inseparable from the ordinary flanged wheel. Then as having an outside cylinder the eccentric and valve gear is necessarily differently arranged, and is made to work from the outside in the Davies' Patent. With regard to this particular contract, we may state that the engines are made for a line-guage of 4 feet 8 inches, or the narrow guage measure of the English lines. Each engine is of 60 horse power, or to speak by the card bas a 10 ½ inch cylinder with a 24 inch stroke, the weight, exclusive of the tender, being about 13 tons. The difference between such an engine and the locomotive of the Victorian railways will be obvious when we state that the latter weighs from 22 to 26 tons, and bas 100 horse power. Then there is much less bright work and ornamentation generally about the local engines than the much more costly ones imported for the Victorian lines, though we suppose that the skill and enterprise which are competent to the execution of the less would be adequate to grapple with the manufacture of the greater and more imposing engine. The dimensions of the engines now being constructed for New Zealand are 22 feet by 8 feet on foot, the plate wheels being of 4 ½ feet diameter, and the leading as well as the tender wheels of 3 ½ feet diameter, that of the angle or guide wheels being 2 ½ feet. The whole of the castings, both of brass and iron, are done on the premises, with the exception of small things of Birmingham make, such as lubricators, whistles, and valves, which it would not pay to cast here. Low Moor iron is used in the construction of the engines, boilers, and fire boxes, and the tires of the wheels are made from 6 x 2 inch bar-iron, welded by the Rigby hammer in 14 feet lengths, and then joined by the same process. The bailers are to work up to a pressure of 150 lb to the inch, and to bear a pressure of 200 lb. Tbe contraet is for delivery in Melbourne, and one of the Soho employees will be sent over to New Zealand to superintend the erection of the engines there and to put them fairly in gear on the line. One of the locomotives having been finished ready for transmission to the seaboard, there was a formal getting up of steam on Saturday week by way of trial of the new engine. Amongst the number of leading men present was Mr Woods, M.L.A, for Crowlands, who, as the agent and inspecting engineer for the patentee, has been assiduous in his attention to the progress of the manufacture, and whose verdict on the result is one of entire approval. Mr R. Lewis, M L.A., was also present, and it bad been expected that the Commissioner of Railways would be there, as also several other metropolitan notabilities, but from some cause they were absent. When those more immediately assisting in the ceremony had satisfied themselves of the success of the manufacture, the company repaired to a well-furnished luncheon. Mr Lewis, M.L. A. for Ballarat West, proposed "The health of the proprietors of the Soho Works," whom he congratulated on the enterprise which had led to the experiment and on the gratifying success which had attended the undertaking. In remarking upon the importance of the experiment as bearing on local manufactures, he mentioned a conversation he had had with the Commissioner of Railways, who had said the Government would no doubt be prepared to invite tenders, from local firms, for the supply of locomotives for the Victorian lines, if the supply could be bad at rates not too much in excess of English prices. Mr Thomas, of Robinson, Thomas and Co., replied to the toast, and in the course of his remarks said his firm would be prepared to turn out as many locomotives as might be required, and at from £300 to £500 in advance of home prices. We may add that in reference to the Southland railway, that its total length, as at present contemplated by the Southland Government, is to be 80 miles, of which some 36 miles have already been completed. The line is of wood, the rails being 8-inches square scantling. As illustrating the working of Davies’ patent angle-wheel engines on wood rails we may state, on the information of Mr Woods, that the "Lady Barkly" is now in Southland, and has had a good trial there on the contractors' ballast line. That locomotive has run 19,200 miles on that line, drawing each trip from 30 to 40 tons of limestone ballast, and yet we are informed that the saw marks are not worn off the rails. When it is considered that each rail can be turned four times, the statement just given as to the inappreciable friction on the rails speaks a good deal, alike for the utility of such rails, and the remarkably apparent adaptation of the Davies locomotive to that kind of way. The engine was conveyed from the works by the aid of twenty-five bullocks to the Railway Terminus, late on Saturday last, for transmission to Melbourne on Monday morning. We may remark that the work now being turned out of the foundry is a gratifying instance of the advance of the locality in manufacturing enterprise; and the credit is one which has also the substantial accompaniment of great commercial good to the town in the shape of locally spent wages, while it is at the same time a sign of the gradual consolidation of urban interests and farces in this the centre of a large and populous and naturally wealthy district.[17]
Country Sketches.
Ballarat, Its Industries.
There are now three large foundries - Hunt and Opie's Victoria, Carter and Co.'s Phoenix, and Robinson and Thompson's Soho Works…Taking the Soho Works for an example, we find there a locomotive engine, of 60-horse power, fast approaching completion-a circumstance which speaks for itself regarding the capabilities of the foundry. The engine, which is for Southland, New Zealand, is to run on Davies's patent wooden rails, and, consequently, it has many peculiarities in its construction…Upwards of 100 men are employed at the foundry, at high wages - the moulders obtaining l5s., and the fitters and smiths 12s., per day…Ballarat has also the largest and most complete distillery in the colony-Dunn's Warrenheip Distillery, now tolerably well known throughout the land. It is situated at the foot of Mount Warrenheip, and is capable of turning out 2,000 gallons of spirit weekly. A substantial bluestone building has been erected - one of the largest and finest about the town. The premises are not only extensive, but also well arranged, including, in addition to the distillery, two handsome brick cottages for the manager and the inspector, weatherboard cottages for the workmen, and a dam capable of containing 100,000 gallons of water. The proprietor gives his support, in turn, to native industry, by making his malt from grain the produce of the neighbouring agricultural districts…[18]
NEWS AND NOTES.
The second locomotive, which is being made at the Soho Foundry for the Southland Railway, will be formally tested on Saturday next, prior to its transmission to the seaboard on the way to New Zealand. News of the safe arrival there of the first engine has been received.[19]
LOCOMOTIVES FOR NEW ZEALAND.
THE SOHO FOUNDRY.
The completion of the last locomotive and tender contracted for by Messrs Robinson, Thomas, and Co., of the Soho Works, Eyre street, for the Southland railway, was celebrated at the works on Saturday. There was a large gathering on the occasion, including, besides the members of the firm and workmen, several members of the late Parliament, farmers, representatives of mining companies and business firms in the town. Among those present we notices Messrs Woods (agent for Mr James Davies, the patentee), B. G. Davies, D. Gillies, G. G. Morton, Henderson, Forbes, Thom, Mather, and Dalgleish. The engine, or No. 3, as “she” is called, was in the yard with her tender attached and steamup, Mr Woods and Mr William Errington, the superintendent of the works, being engaged in very affectionate attention to the multitudinous mechanical mysteries which appertain to these triumphs of modern mechanical art. No 3 is an exact counterpart of the other locomotive, the safe arrival of which in New Zealand we lately reported. The only difference in this last engine is a slight increase in the ornamentation of the exterior by the painter, and the appearance of the whole was that of a bright, new, and carefully finished specimen of enginery. The nominal power of each engine is that of 60 horses, and the cost of each engine and tender is about £2000. As on the occasion of the starting of the first or No. 2 engine, so now we have to report that the manufacturers have won golden opinions from all the judges, and heaps of good wishes were given to the firm for the future. The more prosaic, and possibly not less valuable certificate of satisfaction had previously been given to the firm by the inspecting agent of the patentee. A plentiful refection had been spread in one of the offices, to which the company adjourned after an inspection of the locomotive.
Mr Gillies, in proposing “Health and Prosperity to the Manufacturers,” remarked that those who had known Ballarat, and that part of it especially where the foundry was, would scarcely have believed it possible that such a work could have been turned out here. To execute such a contract on the bare chance of remuneration by getting further orders, reflected great credit on the skill and pluck of the firm, and showed that they could compete with any place in the colony. He understood, also, that this locomotive possessed the Gifford’s patent, which was the first made in the colony. To Mr Woods and to the manufacturers the greatest credit belonged for this successful enterprise, and he hoped the Soho firm would soon have an order for a dozen more locomotives, so that they might be compensated for any loss they might have sustained in the contract.
The toast was drunk with cheers.
Mr Thomas, in response, said it was of course a great undertaking, but he hoped that now a market had been made, and proof given of what could be done here, the people of the colony and those at the head of affairs, would lend a hand in getting further orders of the kind for local execution, as that would benefit all the colony. If this industry were encouraged, over three hundred hands would be employed here, and boys might be taught here who otherwise would have to be sent home to England to learn the trade.
Mr B. G. Davies proposed “The Health of the Patentee, and Success to the Machinery, coupled with the name of Mr Woods.” He felt a great deal of satisfaction at the success of this invention of his old playfellow and townsman, and he must say that the success of the workings and the general turn-out reflected great credit on the Soho establishment.
The toast was drunk with cheers.
Mr Woods responded, and said he hoped this would not be the last locomotive required, for by the New Zealand papers he saw that an extension of the railway was talked about. It struck him as curious that in the very spot, as it were, where the people of Ballarat had rejected Mr Davies’ project in connection with the proposed line to Smythesdale, now greeted a similar project with cheers. Now the project was an established fact, and he hoped it would prosper. Why the proposed line from Ballarat to Smythesdale feel through, he really could not tell, but it seemed that the patentee, like a prophet, had to go out of his own country to get honor. But now he was honored here as by a reverberation or echo from New Zealand. After years of experience, he must say that he never saw work turned out better than this by Messrs Robinson, Thomas and Co. His position had been a peculiar one as inspecting engineer, and he had large powers in that capacity under the contract, but he was glad to be able to state that from first to last there had not been an unpleasant word between him and the contractors, for every detail of the work had been made with a thoroughly honest and conscientious discharge of duty. He hoped the remarks made by Mr Thomas would not be lost. This was the beginning of a new manufacture in the colony, and few understood the difficulties which had to be overcome in such an undertaking. It was notorious that no English firm would take a contract for two locomotives on a new pattern even, to say nothing of a new invention, unless with a guarantee of large profits; but the Soho firm not only undertook a small contract but had introduced a new manufacture. For the “Lady Barkly” engine was but a small affair compared to these, and yet there was not more than £200 worth of imported work about the whole contract, the execution of which was fully equal to any imported work. By a private letter not intended for his eye, he had learned that two English locomotives for the 4 feet 8 ½ in. gauge, Bluff Harbor and Invercargill Railway, had arrived out at the same time that the No. 2 engine of the Soho contract had been landed, and the finish of the Ballarat locomotive had been declared superior to that of the English ones. From Mr Davies himself he learned that the Soho engine had given immense satisfaction. And there was reason for that, for he could say that in point of finish of the working parts, on which the success of all machinery depended, he could back them against any locomotives on the Victorian railways, though in point of mere embellishment they might be inferior. Railway enterprise was only in its infancy here now, but unless local manufactures were fostered, we should not only have to send our boys home to learn the trade, but to stop there when they have learnt it. But no manufacture paid here in the face of competition, as at present, and the unfair difficulties must be remedied. Practically, locomotives could be made here as cheap as in England, and the industry ought to be encouraged. It took £150,000 a –year to maintain the rolling stock of the Victorian railways, and if to that were added the first cost and the six per cent interest on the money, it would pay better to give to some colonial firm the whole charge of the work. He trusted the day of cheap railways was dawning here, and what we wanted for the furnishing of our railways would be made here. He could not conclude without a word of compliment to Mr Errington, and proposing that gentleman’s health. On Mr Errington’s shoulders had rested the main work of the contract, and the execution of the work reflected the highest credit on his skill and honesty of construction. In the face of all sorts of difficulties, and with deficient or alterable plans, he had turned out a piece of machinery that was fit to go into any exhibition in England. He feared the firm would lose by the contract, but if it had a contract like those in England the result would be highly satisfactory. It was with great pleasure he proposed “The health of Mr Errington.”
The toast was drunk with cheers.
Mr Errington very briefly responded; and then proposed “The health of the workmen in the foundry,” saying that, from the foreman downwards, all had proved to be good, honest, industrious men – men whom he could trust as well behind his back as before his face.
The toast was drunk with right lusty cheers; and so the proceedings closed.
We may add that the Soho firm is now engaged in several mining contracts. One for the Victoria Company (late Southern Cross) is for 350 feet of 12 inch lifts, with all accompanying gear, the contract sum being near £1000; One for the Leigh Grand Junction Company, Durham, is for 280 feet of 12-inch lifts, without gear, the price being about £500; one for the Corinella Company, Daylesford, is for a Christy’s patent puddling cylinder[20]
NEWS AND NOTES.
The formal trial of the New Zealand locomotive at the Soho Foundry is to take place on Saturday next, when Mr Woods, M.L.A., and other gentlemen from Melbourne and elsewhere, are expected to be present.[21]
On Wednesday one of the engines and tenders constructed at the Soho Foundry, Ballarat, for the Southland Government, to run on the Invercargill Railway, was shipped at Williamstown in the Leonidas, a schooner built at that town of colonial timber. The weight of the engine and tender is about twenty-five tons, and the shipment took place under the superintendence of Captain Blackburn, the pier master. Mr Thomas, of the Soho Foundry, and Mr J. Woods, M.L.A, were also present during the operation of shipping.[22]

Mining

THE SPECIAL REPORTER OF THE ARGUS.
SIR,-Knowing the interest you take in all that concerns the welfare of Ballarat, your love of fair-play, and readiness to expose injustice or abuse, we offer no apology for troubling you with the following plain statement of facts.
On the 1st instant-, the Argus newspaper published a letter from its special correspondent on the gold fields, so utterly at variance with the truth in matters in which we were directly concerned, that we think it our duty to place the affair in its true light. Speaking of the Black Hill Company, Ballarat, he states-"The whole of the machinery was designed by and erected under the superintendence of Mr J. T. Martin, engineer, of Melbourne, and the main portion of it was supplied by Messrs Langlands Brothers, of Melbourne. No doubt the special correspondent of the Argus was misled by the persons from whom he derived his information, who ever they might be. We were the contractors for the whole of the ironwork for the construction of the 60 head battery; but, at the express desire of the directors of the Black Hill Company, we ordered of Messrs Langlands Brothers, of Melbourne, a portion of the work to be done by their steam hammer, not having at that time one of our own. To prove how false was the information furnished to the "special correspondent” on this point, we may mention that the work executed by the Messrs Langlands consisted of 60 discs and 30 wipers, amounting to about £275 out of a contract of £2045. So much for the veracity of that statement.
This portion of the work undertaken by Messrs Langlands Brothers, proved most disastrous to us in its results. The object in giving it to them was to expedite the work. They were to complete it in about ten days, but owing to some unexplained cause it was not finished under eight weeks, the Black Hill Company's directors, in their extreme liberality, inflicting upon us the full penalty of £10 per day for the delay on the part of Messrs Langlands Brothers, although as previously stated, it was by the particular wish of the directors that this work was entrusted to them.
The letter next goes on to state that the first three months were consumed in experiments and improvements, &c, &c, which need not be further referred to-a wise discretion on the part of the special correspondent's informants! The less this matter be referred to, the better for the credit of the directors and their engineer. The "experiments" resulted in proving that the design of the engineer was faulty-a design condemned by ourselves and all competent engineers who had inspected it-viz., having two 10-inch plungers, with 6 inch waterways, but which he obstinately insisted upon having carried out. The "improvements" were nothing else but reverting to the recognised principle of having pumps and waterways of about the same diameter - in fact, undoing what he had insisted upon doing in spite of remonstrances.
Had Mr Martin been less self-opinionated and more ready to take the advice of practical engineers, the company would never have been put to the expense of these experiments and improvements, and we should have stood a chance of a settlement of our account, which still stands in abeyance, besides obtaining our share of credit for having been the manufacturers of the largest and most complete battery in the colonv.-We are, &c,
ROBINSON, THOMAS AND CO.
Soho Foundry, 13th September.[23]
COUNTY COURT.
Friday, 12th June.
(Before His Honor Judge Rogers.)
Robinson and another v Robinson-Mr Walsh for the plaintiff, Mr Hardy for the defendant. An action for £20, balance of account for work and labor done for the Nelson Company by the proprietors of the Soho Foundry. A receipt in full of all demands was pleaded in defence. It transpired that the company had deducted from the plaintiffs' account £20, for fines and delays in the execution of the work. His Honor found for the defendant with £5 costs.[24]

Other

NEWS AND NOTES.
Messrs Hunt and Opie, emulous of proving their loyalty and their howitzers to the full, on Tuesday fired a grand salute at midnight by way of explosive wind up to the day's proceedings. We were informed that the morning's salute was heard distinctly at Bunker's Hill. We should add that Messrs Robinson and Co., of the Soho Foundry, also cast a gun or two for the festive celebration of Tuesday.[25]
THE ROYAL MARRIAGE REJOICINGS.
[His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra of Denmark]
The early morning was ushered in by the booming of royal salutes, fired by Messrs Hunt and Opie, of the Victoria Foundry, and by Messrs Robinson and Thomas, of the Soho Foundry, from guns cast by these firms expressly for the occasion.[26]

Workplace Relations

The People

Legacies

See also

Monte Christo Co.

Soho Foundry, Sovereign Hill

Further Notes

References

  1. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 – 1864) Saturday 10 August 1861, page 2.
  2. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 1 January 1862, page 3.
  3. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 – 1864) Friday 10 April 1863, page 2.
  4. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Monday 20 April 1863, page 3.
  5. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Tuesday 29 September 1863, page 2.
  6. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Tuesday 29 September 1863, page 4.
  7. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 1 October 1863, page 2.
  8. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Monday 15 February 1864, page 3.
  9. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Friday 3 June 1864, page 2.
  10. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Friday 3 June 1864, page 4.
  11. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 9 December 1861, page 1.
  12. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 14 December 1861, page 2.
  13. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 8 January 1863, page 4.
  14. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Friday 25 December 1863, page 2.
  15. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 7 May 1864, page 1.
  16. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Monday 16 May 1864, pages 2-3.
  17. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Tuesday 24 May 1864, page 1.
  18. The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956), Saturday 27 August 1864, page 6.
  19. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Wednesday 31 August 1864, page 2.
  20. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Monday 5 September 1864, page 4.
  21. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 12 May 1864, page 2.
  22. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Friday 17 June 1864, page 2.
  23. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Tuesday 16 September 1862, page 3.
  24. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Saturday 13 June 1863, page 4.
  25. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Thursday 21 May 1863, page 2.
  26. The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), Saturday 23 May 1863, page 4.


Further Reading

External Links

Photograph - http://victoriancollections.net.au/items/53daf2ff9821f513b88569d3


--Jcroggon 09:50, 18 May 2011 (EST)

--Beth Kicinski 10:47, 30 December 2012 (EST)

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