White Flat

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White Flat, 1861. The lower street is South Street. The original and altered alignment of Yarrowee Creek is shown, Federation University Historical Collection (Cat. No. 4416)
Up From White Flat by Isobel Boustead, 1939, Federation University Historical Collection (Cat.No.539.1).


Heritage Listings

White Flat Oval Refuse Site registration number H7622-0442.[1]

The Elms in Hickman Street, White Flat are on the Ballarat Treasures Register.[2]


White Flat is located along the Yarrowee Creek, overlooked by the high escarpment along Armstrong Street. In 1890 William Little wrote: In the glade (White Flat) the curling smoke and smell of roast wallaby ascend. Around the white fire-ash circles a group of Aborigines, mostly clad in primeval innocence, feathery coronets, fat and rouge, all garrulous and amaze over the coming change - the reversal of their cherished tribal customs ... [3] The earliest white settlers regarded White Flat as the prettiest spot in the district with the shallow stream making its way along the plateau above, with shade trees and pools spoken of.[4]

It was named after the white clay strata at that spot.[5] White Flat became the site of gold mining in the early days, including the mines along the Nightingale Lead.[6] It later became a rubbish tip before being made into two ovals, returning to a former use - the White Flat Reserve was formerly a favourite playing field for the early miners.[7]

In 1934, in order that the historical association with the famous gold rush days might retained in the original name of White Flat, the parks and gardens committee of the city council recommended against the change of name to Central Park, as suggested by the White Flat Reserve committee.[8]

Gold Era

White Flat was a shallow and very rich diggings, which was opened in 1853.[9]

During the late 1850s there was a machine on the White Flat, Ballarat for the extraction of gold used by mining companies in the district.[10] In 1856 the White Flat Drainage and Mining Co. cut impressive water races and used two engines to drain water from the flat.[11]

Between March and June 1856 a series of regulations gave effect to the Frontage System' on the Frenchman's, White Flat, Black and Gravel Pits leads, and the registration of both Frontage and Block claims and defined the extent of the claims based on the depth of sinking and the difficulties to be overcome.[12]

Glasgow Company was on the site of the White Flat Oval.

On the White Flat, the Clydesdale Company was flooded out, by reason of its works being situated in the original bed of the creek. The mullock from the works has also diverted the waters from a straight course through the bridge in this locality, and the result was that the whole force of the flood was directed upon the north-east wing of the bridge, and thence the washing away of a considerable portion of the road. A portion of the roadway of Albert street recently formed by the Western Council, adjoining the White Flat road, was also washed away. The waters from the Gaol Reserve forced a passage across the roadway that entirely cut off the passage of vehicles. A portion of Eyre street in the West was also flooded, but not to any great extent, by the convergence of water from different streets.[13]

White Flat Swimming Baths

A very excellent swimming bath has lately been opened at the White Flat. It is about 50 feet long, and in the deepest part, 6 feet, and in the shallowest 3 feet 10 inches deep. The price for a bath is only 1s., boys being charged half-price. As it is most necessary that cleanliness should be encouraged - amongst all classes, it is to be hoped, that the projectors of this undertaking will be well patronised.[14] In 1857 the seasons ticket cost one pound.[15] In 1858 the proprietor was Robert Dagnall, an a season ticket cost 15 shillings, men 6 shillings and boys 3 shilling. The advertised Come and judge of the purity of the water for yourselves.[16]

Chinaman's Dam and White Flat Waterholes

On 12 October 1970 Fow Chong (or Chang) was killed in a mining accident at White Flat.[17] The following year Chinaman's Dam at White Flat was in common usage.[18] In 1871 a young lad named Thomas Paterson drowned while bathing in the Chinaman's Dam at White Flat. [19] Two more children, Sarah Ann Barr and Elvira Rees, were drowned in the White Flat waterhole in 1885.[20] This may be the waterhole on the Yarrowee Creek at White Flat known as 'Paroompi' (or Parmoompi[21]) and identified on the Eureka Stockade Trial Map. It was possibly named Parmoompi by the original inhabitants, the Wadawurrung.

Some native names are preserved on it [Urqhart's survey], as Wendouree, Bowdun (Black Hill), Quimidu Pakup for pools in the valley near Poverty Point, and Parmoompi for pools lower down the valley.[22]

Sir,—Seeing that another young man has lost his life in the White Flat holes, I am in hopes that the Town Council will see the advisability ol erecting the baths as soon as possible, so that we may not have to chronicle another death by drowning in those treacherous places on ths White Flat. I see that the Town Council has voted £800 for that purpose, and I am sure the inhabitants of the town will bs gratefal for prompt action in carrying out so Important an undertaking. Should the baths be erected at once, I hope they will be kept open until noon on Sundays.—
Yours, &c.,


DRAINAGE ON THE TOWNSHIP. - SIR,-Once more in my time I have to beg the favor of your allowing me to draw the attention of the Western Municipal Council's engineer to the sludgy mess now existing in Armstrong street, near the shop of Mr F. Summers tea mart, hoping that it may be the means of speedy alteration of the nuisance now existing to the annoyance of everybody. The above state of things has been tolerated long enough, and displays a wanton disregard of the ratepayers' sanitary comforts other than those who are seated in the Council. The above muddy affair exists endwise six feet above the bottom of the covered large drain, emptying into a blind creek running parallel with the new gaol, and into the White Flat out fall, which, to my fancy, makes the negligence more conspicuous. - :PEDESTRIAN WEST[24]

In 1862 the channel was made to prevent earlier disastrous floods at White Flat. The channel was for the purpose of carrying off the rain-fall and storm-water of a large tract of country north of Ballarat, which water flows from north to south, crossing the Main road by channels at the following places, viz : - Yarrowee Creek, Bakery Hill, Specimen Gully, Pennyweight Gully, and Caledonian Creek, which creeks join at a point in the White Flat.[25]

... When the Main road frontages were gold, the Government reserved certain openings between the allotments, and cut trenches about two feet in depth to carry off the alarm water, which answered the purpose at that time, as there was nothing to obstruct its course along the 'White Flat into the Yarrowee; but when mining operations were being earned on over all the ground known as the White Flat and the bed of the Yarrowee Creek dug up, and the stream turned in all directions, to suit the convenience of miners, the storm water was dammed back and flooded all the low ground and that portion of the road previously named. When the Municipal Council was established it urged upon the Government the necessity for providing an outlet for the surface drainage, and in 1858 a sum of £9000 was put upon the Estimates for that object. As the old course of the Yarrowee at the boundary of the municipality had been destroyed, it was deemed advisable to cut a channel, known as the Yarrowee cutting, so as to carry off the water from that end of the road, and another channel, commencing at the bridge now known as the Caledonian Bridge, named the Golden Point; these two channels to join in the White Flat, and be continued beyond the present bridge at Grant street. A contract was accepted for the work, but the carrying it out interfered so much with certain mining clams, that the Government was induced to suspend operations, which it did for more than a year, ...[26]

The Yarrowee Creek at White Flat was also the dumping point for liquid sewerage from the Ballarat Hospital.

A deputation from the Hospital Committee waited upon the Western Council on Monday, and laid before it the report lately agreed upon by the Engineers of the two Councils and Mr C.D. Cuthbert, relative to the means proposed to abate the hospital drainage nuisance. The deputation seemed to have little faith in the nuisance being abated by the means proposed, and a plan proposed by Mr Appleby was conditionally agreed upon, viz, to run a close box drain from Hospital dow Lydiard and Sturt Streets, and eventually extend the drain by way of the Unicorn Hotel into Albert Street, and below the White Flat Bridge, where the contents drain would be poured into the creek. The committee guaranteed that only the liquid sewerage would be disposed of in this manner, and that is should first pass through filter beds, so that there is now every probability of this vexed question being amicably arranged. We should state, that Mr Drury, the president f the Hospital, was served with prohibition from the Supreme Court, on Monday, to stay the nuisance, but the Council has guaranteed that no more legal proceedings will be initiated if the proposed plan is adopted.[27]


During the 1860s bricks were being made at White Flat. Thomas Sneddon stated he was greatly annoyed, his health injured, and his garden damaged by a party of men burning bricks near his house on the White Flat, and requesting the Council to put a stop to it. [28] The brickmaker may have been Henry Benson of Armstrong Street.[29]

BRICKS have been for some time past a staple manufacture, and are now procurable at a reasonable rate. The price at the kilns varying in different localities from three pounds to four pounds ten shillings per thousand. The latter price being readily obtained for what are called the White Flat bricks, which are unquestionably the best in quality produced, and equal, if not superior to, any other bricks in the Colony. These bricks, when properly manufactured, present a clean appearance, are full of metal, and very durable; altogether unlike the bricks made on the seaboard or from other beds of clays in this vicinity. The former are too highly charged with sand, are weak in fracture, and liable to waste away by exposure. While the bricks made from the generality of the clays in this district, are full of quartz and iron-stone gravel, coarse in appearance and liable to easy breakage. The White Flat clay beds border on the east bank of the Yarrowee Creek, commencing within two feet of the surface, and extend downwards for a depth of about fifteen feet This clay is of excellent temper, entirely free from gravel, and takes the fire readily. It is also well adapted for flooring, roof and draining tiles; and offers the best field for the erection of machinery to be found in the district. Other clay beds are being worked at the back of the Cemetery, and on Black Hill and Bakery Hill Flats. The bricks produced, though not equalling their White Flat competitors, are largely patronised by the general public on account of the lower price at which they are charged. At present there are about twenty brick moulders employed in the district, and about twice the number of puddlers and burners. The average production, however, does not exceed seventy thousand bricks weekly; and at that rate some of the larger makers complain that the supply is in excess of the demand; that under large contracts they could work more advantageously at far less rates.[30]

Early White Flat Community

In 1859 ... Miss Ledwith, who was a passenger by the ill-fated Admella, and whose sufferings on that occasion were of a very severe kind, has arrived on Ballarat, and is now residing at the White Flat, with a Mr Dowd, her brother in-law. ... [31]

In 1862 James Orr of White Flat buried a son. [32]

In 1862 the Rev. T. Raston was living at White Flat.

On the 11th December, by the Rev. T. Raston, at the residence of the bride's father, White Flat, Ballarat, James, second son of the late Robert Low, Esq., Fifeshire, Scotland, to Margaret, eldest daughter of Alexander Bartholomew, Esq., late of Stirlingshire, Scotland.[33]

In 1863 James Hyam of White Flat won first prize in the Ballarat Horticultural Society Autumn Exhibition with 10 dessert apples.[34]

In 1864 the Golden Lion Hotel was located at White Flat.[35] Six residents were listed as living at White Flat, rear of Armstrong Street South in the 1865-6 Dicker's Ballarat Directory. They were William Floyd (labourer); Symons (miner); Thomas Hawkins (miner); Gowen (miner); George Forbes (miner), and Hannon (miner).[36]

James Lamb was born at Glasgow in 1836 and arrived in Australia in 1852. He was one of earliest diggers on Ballarat and worked on White Flat Diggings. He later worked with Koh-i-noor Gold Mine, and Band of Hope Gold Mine. He was also a foundation member of the Ballarat Old Colonists' Association.[37]

Golden Lion Hotel, White Flat

The Golden Lion Hotel was known to be operating in 1864-1866.[38]

Rainbow Hotel, White Flat

The Rainbow Hotel was known to be operating in 1865-1869, [39] the operator in 1865 was James Boyle.[40] In 1877 it was run by Nancarrow.<Ballarat Star, 11 May 1877.</ref>

On Sunday, at the Rainbow Hotel, Ballarat, the District Coroner held an inquest on the body of Ah Too, whose death, according to the evidence and the verdict of the jury, took place on Friday, in a hut on the White Flat, Ballarat, and arose from natural causes, being caused by a protracted fever and diarrhœa supervening thereon. King Wing, miner, deposed that he had known the deceased for five years, during the whole of which period he had been in Ballarat. Witness had been a mate and living with the deceased for half the time. The deceased, who was aged thirty two years, and from Canton, was always a healthy man up to about nine weeks, when he complained of loss of appetite, but he continued to work very hard up to four weeks, when the mining party was broken up. Since then the deceased lost his appetite entirely, and could badly walk for any length of time without lying down. He never had any cough, nor did he feel pain in any part of the body, and his bowels were regular. No Chinese doctor nor any medical man saw him. He became worse on Wednesday, being greatly exhausted from the heat of the day. He then got a severe diarrhœa and could hardly stand up, falling down every time he went to the closet. He died about four or five o'clock on Friday. James Sutherland, M.D, tendered the medical evidence.[41]
Mr Thomas Bridget, one of the candidates at the Ballarat East borough election, met the ratepayers at Boyle's Rainbow hotel, White Flat, on Friday evening, and was very well received. He subsequently addressed another meeting in a different part of the town.[42]

White Flat Botanical Gardens

Opening of the White Flat Botanical Gardens on 07 November 1856.[43]
The recently formed Central and Golden Point Progress Association has a membership of nearly 300 citizens residing east, of the Yarrowee. The activities of the association include the transformation of White Flat into gardens and recreation grounds.[44]

White Flat Bridge

THE WHITE FLAT BRIDGE. - SIR, Having observed in your report of the proceedings of the Council of the Borough of Ballarat East, that the attention of this council be called to the dangerous state of the White Flat bridge, allow me to inform you that a joint meeting of the works committee of each council was held on the 13th day of December, 1865, when it was agreed that a new bridge should be erected. A copy of the resolutions was sent down to Ballarat East, and some technical objection was raised to the constitution of the meeting. Further, a meeting was arranged of the two councils for Monday last, to take place after the special meeting of the Water Commission, when this work would have been no doubt agreed to, but after the completion of the business of the commission, the meeting lapsed in consequence of two of the members ot Ballarat East leaving, and there not being then a quorum of their members present. The blame does not therefore rest with this council.
Yours, &c.,
Mayor of Ballarat.[45]

Rubbish Tip

During the 1890s the area was known as White Flat Rubbish Tip. The Courier reported: It was partly dam and partly gully extending from close to Grant Street several hundred yards southwards. The accumulation of rubbish carted there from all parts of Ballarat has filled the tip up and brought it on level with the street until it has outgrown its old name and is now known as the White Flat Reserve. Many organisations such as the Golden Point Cricket Club, the Ballarat Junior Technical School, the Christian Brothers school, and numerous junior clubs played there during the summer months. During winter bad drainage made sport unplayable as water lodged there. Around this time a movement to erect dressing rooms and buildings was made.[46]

White Flat Improvement Committee

In 1925 there was a group known as the White Flat Improvement Committee. The White Flat Sports reserve was officially opened on 18 March 1925 at which time Sir Alexander Peacock said that a wonderful change had been brought about at White Flat , and those who had brought it about would have the gratification of knowing that they were providing inestimable pleasure for the children and young people.[47] The site of the reserve had originally been abandoned mining ground and subsequently a municipal rubbish tip.[48] In 1926 artist Herbert H. Smith and H. Jolly, both teachers of the nearby Ballarat School of Mines, were appointed as representatives on the board controlling the reserve.[49]

Foot Race on White Flat Oval during a Ballarat Junior Technical School athletics carnival, Federation University Historical Collection (Cat.No. 4248).
Football Game on White Flat Oval, c1965, Federation University Historical Collection (Cat.No.4248).
Foot Race on White Flat Oval during a Ballarat Junior Technical School athletics carnival, c1965. The grandstand is visible in the background. Federation University Historical Collection (Cat.No.4248).

Recreation Reserve

In 1988 White Flat was not permanently reserved, as Council was waiting for mining rights to be cleared; ... once that occurred it was believed the council will be able to change a 'very insanitary place becoming a valuable recreation ground'. The newspaper reported that the council should rigidly protect it against removal of sand and debris, because ultimately it will need much filling up.][50] According to orders of 3 December 1888 White Flat, Ballarat was to became a site for public recreation reserved to a depth of 100 feet from the surface - Seven acres one rood thirty-two perches, in the County of Grenville, City of Ballarat, being part of section 81.[51] It was permanently gazetted on 18 April 1889.

Ballarat knows no municipal eyesores. A disused tip rapidly becomes a park, and a vacant piece of Crown lands an avenue of trees. The Yarrowee has now been pitched,and its banks at the White Flat, where years ago used to be an unsightly mud flat and the desolation of a worked out alluvial diggings, have been converted into football grounds. In the same way the great stretch of plain towards Alfredton once dotted with the mullock heaps of dismantled mines — has been converted into an attractive park.[52]

In 1925 there was a group known as the White Flat Improvement Committee. The White Flat Sports Reserve was officially opened on 18 March 1925 at which time Sir Alexander Peacock said that 'a wonderful change had been brought about at White Flat, and those who had brought it about would have the gratification of knowing that they were providing inestimable pleasure for the children and young people.'

In 1932 the Victorian Government announced regulations for the care, protection and management of the reserve known as the "White Flat," in the City of Ballarat. [53]

White Flat Ovals and Sporting Facilities

During the 1930s depression the White Flat, marred with mining holes, was taken up as a sports ground, and unemployed were engaged to fill in the dams. The School [of Mines] took a great part in designing and laying out the oval. The boys did much of the work in establishing the smaller oval at the southern end and the grandstand was shifted in from Buninyong. [54]

In 2019 the chnagerooms were upgraded to be female-friendly, and to accomodate umpires' changerooms, amenities, public toilets and shower facilities, kitchen and servery.

A.E. 'Sonny' Mark grandstand

In 1934 the grandstand, known as the A.E. 'Sonny' Mark Stand, was purchased for 130 pounds moved to White Flat from the defunct Buninyong Racing Club.[55] Albert Edward (Sonny) Mark was a foundation member of the Golden Point Cricket Club in 1910/1911 and part of the first Premiership side. He was a prominent A grade player and committee member for many years, including being Treasurer of the Club from at least 1933/34 to 1938/39. He acted as Golden Point delegate to the Ballarat District Cricket Association from 1934 to 1938. Sonny served as a Member of the White Flat committee from 1932/1933 to 1948/1949. Every year from the year 1933 until the Club went into recess in 1942 he took the chair for the election of President at annual meetings, an honour now reserved for Life Members. The B.D.C.A. B Grade shield named in Sonny Mark's honour for his contribution to the Golden Point Cricket Club and also to Ballarat cricket. He was instrumental in having the Grandstand at White Flat constructed and it was named in his honour. [56]

Operations were begun on Monday morning in connection with the re-erection of the grandstand at the White Flat Reserve. The stand was bought from the Buninyong racecourse trustees, and its transfer by road was witnessed by a large number of interested spectators. Originally the White Flat was an unsightly spot, but by the efforts of enthusiastic workers It has been transformed into an area which will probably become one of the most popular spoirs centres in the city. The council has generously supported the committee.[57]
Assisted by a gift of £15 from the Junior Technical School and £5 from the White Flat Improvement committee, the civic authorities are creating a playing oval south of the main oval at White Flat suitable for the smaller boys at the school. [58]

Former Ebenezer Tennis Courts (now 12a Hickman St, Ballarat Central)

In 1928 the Ebenezer Church congregation built tennis courts on crown land (now known as 12a Hickman Street) using it for sporting purposes until the 1960s/70s. [59] in 2012 a large multi-storey development was proposed for this site, but was refused by City of Ballarat Councillors after receiving 22 objections to the proposal.[60] The proposal was finally rejected by VCAT in May 2013.[61]

Other Notes

LANDSLIP AT THE WHITE FLAT, BALLARAT: FOUR LIVES LOST. Amid the pitiless wind and rain storm which raged during the dark hours of Tuesday morning, there occurred an accident and loss of life under circumstances of a nature most appalling than any which have presented themselves in Ballaarat for a considerable length of time. For the last four mouths a man named William Duncan, a native of Linlithgow. N.B., has resided with his wife and family (consisting of three little boys, aged respectively, seven, five, and two years), in a weatherboard building, erected on a piece of low-lying land, jutting into the Yarrowee Creek at White Flat, and designated " Sunny Corner." The cottage was placed close to the water, and immediately under the high baon the western side. This bank, along the summit of which the Sebastopol road passes near the Horse and Jockey Hotel, consists of a friable yet tenacious soil, and in most places retains large boulders of honeycombed bluestone-the former having a tendency to slip away in large masses, and the latter to roll down the steep side of the hill, frequently doing much injury to the humble dwellings and gardens placed beneath. The occupant of the dwelling under notice had, it seems, frequently had petty annoyances from such sources, and been warned against their recurrence, but we suppose was not able to devise means for changing his residence or improving his position. Duncan, with his wife and family, had retired to rest as usual on Monday night, which was a very severe one, with constant rain and storm. About two o'clock on Tuesday morning his wife awoke. He got up to light a candle, as she thought she was about to be taken in labour, being near her confinement. The candle had been lighted about ten minutes, when all at once, and without any previous notice, the gable end and sides of the house were crushed in by a large mass of earth which had slipped from the side of the hill and pressed down upon Duncan, his wife, and children, as they lay in bed. His wife spoke for a few minutes after the accident happened, but the children were never heard to speak or cry. They were sleeping in a separate bed on the opposite side of the room, and it is believed the end of the house crushed them. The earth continued slipping down until Duncan was covered up as far as the shoulders. According to his statement, he was continually calling for help, but the noise of the rain and storm, and the running of the creek, prevented him from being heard. It was a boy that first heard his cries, between seven and eight o'clock in the morning. He brought two men to Duncan's assistance. Other men then came and got Duncan out. They carried him to the Horse and Jockey Hotel, and soon afterwards conveyed him to the Hospital, where the coroner took his deposition for the information of the jury that would have to investigate the cause of the death of the wife and children. Such is the substance of the statement of the sole survivor of this lamentable affair, lt seems, further, from the observation of the police and others who hastened to his assistance, that his wife had been lying alongside of him with her arm around his neck; but that during the night he must have endeavoured to extricate himself from the superincumbent mass of earth and stones, as when he was disinterred bis head, shoulders, and arms were then visible, and his wife's arm alone laying upon his breast. After Duncan was got out by the police, which was effected in the midst of bitterly cold wind and driving rain, they proceeded to get out the dead. They were found covered up with about three feet of soil, including several small boulders, and one weighing at least from three to four hundredweight. The bodies on being got out were found crushed down to the floor of the cottage, with thc broken stretchers on which they lay. They were immediately tied up in their bedding and taken to the hotel. Sergeant Larner and Constable Crossdale proceeded to recover what property was worthy of preservation, but were unable to discover two watches said to be there. Duncan is a poor man, has been nine years in the colony, and previously lived at Miners' Rest and Geelong. The affair, as might have been expected, created great interest all Tuesday.-Star, 8th July. [62]

THE STORM-WATER CHANNEL - members of Parliament and other persons:- Brief statement of facts in connection with the storm water channel a Ballarat, in support of the notice to be made by the Hon. J. B. Humffray on Thursday the 25th instant, in the Legislative for the appropriation of a sum of money toward the completion of the channel, showing the necessity of the work, and the obligation of the Government to carry it out. The proposed channel is for the purpose of carrying off the rain-fall and storm-water of a large tract of country north of Ballarat, which water flows from north to south, crossing the Main road by channels at the following places, viz : - Yarrowee Creek, Bakery Hill, Specimen Gully, Pennyweight Gully, and Caledonian creek, which creeks join at a point in the White Flat, south of the Main road. The Central Board formed the road in 1857 and made bridges and culverts at the above named and mining operations having not only obstructed natural course, but wholly destroyed the Yarrowee Creek through the White Flat, so that on the occasion of any very heavy rain-fall disastrous floods have occurred, from 1856 up to the present time, inundating the road and premises of merchants and traders, and causing a vast destruction of property-on one occasion to over £100,000-and also loss of life. ... The Government, in 1858, recognised its responsibility to prevent a recurrence of these floods, which could only be accomplished by the formation of sheeted channels joining at, and having an outlet through the White Flat, voted £9,000 and contracted with Musson and Co. ...[63]

A number of cows died lately on the White Flat, their symptoms showing that the cause of death was common to them all. An investigation has discovered that they died of arsenical poisoning, and traces of arsenic were found ïn the water running in the Yarrowee Creek. The arsenic is believed to have escaped from the pyrites works at the Band and Albion mine. In the treatment of the auriferous pyrites at the mine a large quantity of arsenic is freed. Most of it is collected, and thrown down a deep shaft in the neighbourhood. A percentage of the arsenic apparently escapes into the creek. [64]

Also See


Clydesdale Co.

Nightingale Lead

White Flat Co.

White Flat Drainage and Mining Co.

Glasgow Company

Hickman Street

White Flat Foundry


  1. http://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/124311/download-report, accessed 20 April 2016/
  2. http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/ab/ballarat-treasures-register.aspx
  3. Guide to Ballarat with Map and Illustrations, F.W. Niven & Co., Ballarat, 1890, pg 56.
  4. Ballarat 150 Years, Ballarat Courier, 17 March 1988, p25.
  5. Ballarat 150 Years, Ballarat Courier, 17 March 1988, p25.
  6. E. Jenkins & A. Jenkins, The Golden Chain, SP, 1980.
  7. The Argus, 6 October 1949
  8. The Age, 22 May 1934.
  9. Australian Town and Country Journal, 27 October 1888.
  10. Evan D Jenkins & Arthur J Jenkins The Golden Chain: A History of Sebastopol (Victoria, Australia) with special reference to gold and mining, SP, 1980.
  11. Ballarat Star, 6 September 1856.
  12. Wood, Harrie, Notes on the Ballarat Goldfield', in The Goldfields and Mineral Districts of Victoria, ed. R. Brough Smyth, Facsimile edition, Queensberry Hill Press, 1979, p. 447.
  13. Ballarat Star, 24 June 1863.
  14. The Age, 02 February 1856.
  15. Ballarat Star, 02 December 1857.
  16. Ballarat Star, 16 January 1858.
  17. http://www.ballaratgenealogy.org.au/miners/c.htm
  18. Illustrated Australian News for Home Readers, Saturday 20 May 1871
  19. The Argus, 11 May 1937
  20. The Argus, 16 February 1885
  21. Bate, Weston, Lucky City, Melbourne University Press, 1978, p26
  22. Ballarat Star, 23 May 1888.
  23. Ballarat Courier, 02 December 1879.
  24. The Ballarat Star, 22 February 1861.
  25. Ballarat Star, 23 February 1864
  26. Ballarat Star, 14 February 1863.
  27. Ballarat Star, 08 December 1863.
  28. Ballarat Star, 24 October 1860
  29. Dicker's Ballarat Directory, 1865-6
  30. Ballarat Star, 09 March 1857.
  31. South Australian Register, 12 September 1859.
  32. Ballarat Star, 15 October 1862.
  33. Ballarat Star, 12 December 1862.
  34. 14 March 1863.
  35. Ballarat Star, 19 October 1864
  36. Dicker's Ballarat Directory, 1865-6.
  37. McCallum, M.,Ballarat Citizens and Sports at Home and Abroad.
  38. Ballarat Star, 20 October 1864 and 19 January 1866.
  39. Ballarat Star, 10 August 1869.
  40. Ballarat Star, 5 October 1865.
  41. Ballarat Star, 5 January 1863.
  42. Ballarat Star, 3 August 1867.
  43. The Argus, 27 October 1856.
  44. The Age, 12 May 1923.
  45. Ballarat Star, 28 February 1866.
  46. Ballarat Courier, 04 July 1923.
  47. The Argus, 19 March 1925
  48. The Argus, 19 March 1925
  49. The Argus, 2 March 1926
  50. Ballarat Star, 24 July 1888.
  51. Victorian Government Gazette, 07 December 1888, Vol 114, p. 3682.
  52. The Age, 01 September 1904.
  53. Victorian Government Gazette, 02 March 1932, p 643.
  54. The Courier, 23 March 1957.
  55. Ballarat 150 Years, Ballarat Courier, 17 March 1988, p25.
  56. http://goldenpoint.cricketvictoria.com.au/lifemembers.html
  57. The Argus, 29 May 1924.
  58. The Age, 11 May 1937.
  59. Discussions with Ebenezer parishioners and Clare Gervasoni, 10 November 2012.
  60. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-11-30/developer-to-fight-hickman-st-units-snub/4400406, accessed 15 April 2020.
  61. http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/vic/VCAT/2013/816.html?context=1;query=ethan;mask_path=au/cases/vic/VCAT, accessed 15 April 2020.
  62. Rockhampton Bulletin and Central Queensland Advertiser, 23 July 1863
  63. The Ballarat Star, 23 February 1864
  64. Hobart Mercury, 16 March 1889

Other Sites

A Barlow Traction Engine moving the stand at the White Flat Sports Ground - http://museumvictoria.com.au/bfa/view_single.asp?qNum=MM%20000050


Urquhart Map - http://digital.slv.vic.gov.au/view/action/singleViewer.do?dvs=1351249918828~475&locale=en_US&metadata_object_ratio=10&show_metadata=true&preferred_usage_type=VIEW_MAIN&frameId=1&usePid1=true&usePid2=true

White Flat Grandstand - https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=730404253653361&set=pb.678478752179245.-2207520000.1382959659.&type=3&theater https://victoriancollections.net.au/items/507161fd2162ef0ee4b3d78c

White Flat Oval Facebook Page - https://www.facebook.com/pages/White-Flat-Oval/175639532458954

--H. Scarpe 21:37, 28 August 2012 (EST); --C.K.Gervasoni 10:37, 27 September 2012 (EST); --Sallyanne Doyle 21:56, 5 October 2012 (EST); --C.K.Gervasoni 15:11, 10 November 2012 (EST); --Clare K.Gervasoni 10:07, 13 August 2015 (AEST)

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